Health and Social Change in Russia and Eastern Europe

By William C. Cockerham | Go to book overview

Chapter 3

Health Lifestyles: A Theoretical Perspective

Since lifestyles are the most likely primary social determinant of the downturn in longevity in the former socialist countries, it is necessary to discover why this is the case. The initial step in this process is to present a theoretical perspective to guide subsequent discussion. As defined in the last chapter, health lifestyles are collective patterns of health-related behavior based on choices from options available to people according to their life chances. Consequently, the behaviors that people select which affect their health, either positively or negatively, are not simply random acts of individuals but constitute a recognizable pattern of activities specific to certain groups, social strata, and societies.

Investigating this situation not only helps explain the rise in mortality in the former Soviet bloc, but also addresses a fundamental debate in sociology and other social sciences over the relative contributions of structure and agency Structure refers to the collective patterns associated with societies, institutions, social classes, communities, groups, and roles that both constrain and enable individuals, while agency is the freely chosen activities of individuals. Structures, then, can be conceptualized as sets of mutually sustaining schemas (rules) and resources that empower and constrain social action and tend to be reproduced by that action (Sewell 1992:19). Agency, in contrast, is a process in which individuals—influenced by their past but also oriented toward the future (as a capacity to image alternative possibilities) and the present (as a capacity to consider both past habits and future situations within

-53-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Health and Social Change in Russia and Eastern Europe
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • Chapter 1 - Introduction 1
  • Chapter 2 - The Social Determinants of the Decline in Longevity 29
  • Chapter 3 - Health Lifestyles: a Theoretical Perspective 53
  • Chapter 4 - Russia: Life Expectancy and Social Change 81
  • Chapter 5 - Russia: the Current Health Crisis 99
  • Chapter 6 - Hungary 123
  • Chapter 7 - Poland 143
  • Chapter 8 - The Czech Republic and Slovakia 169
  • Chapter 9 - Romania 193
  • Chapter 10 - Bulgaria 211
  • Chapter 11 - East Germany 227
  • Chapter 12 - Conclusion 245
  • Appendix 253
  • References 255
  • Subject Index 277
  • Author Index 282
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 284

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.