I WISH to give a special thanks to the hundreds of business managers and public-sector employees who helped me to make sense of the issues addressed in this book. Empirical research is always something of an Alice in Wonderland experience, and I thank you for letting me into your world.
The Robert Wood Johnson and Russell Sage Foundations gave generously to this project; I wish to thank Lewis Sandy and Eric Wanner in particular. Malcolm Litchfield at Princeton University Press has been a wonderful editor on every front. I also wish to thank the series editors, Theda Skocpol, Ira Katznelson, and Marty Shefter, for their enthusiasm.
Many colleagues helped me to figure out what this book is about. I wish to thank John Ferejohn, Chris Rossell, Ceci Rouse, Bob Shapiro, and Duane Swank for assistance in the statistical investigation. I am also very grateful to Jim Alt, Stuart Altman, Suzanne Berger, Linda Bergthold, Dennis Berkey, Bob Blendon, John Brigham, Larry Brown, Walter Dean Burnham, John Campbell, Peter Monk Christiansen, Bill Crotty, John Campbell, John Gerring, Marie Gottschalk, Peter Hall, Rich Harris, Christine Herrington, Chris Heye, Jennifer Hochshield, Larry Jacobs, Tim Knudsen, Marty Levin, Mike Lipsky, Ira Magaziner, Ted Marmor, Andy Martin, Eileen McDonough, Sid Milkis, Mark Mizruchi, Jim Morone, Victor Nee, Ben Page, Sofia Perez, Mark Peterson, Paul Pierson, David Plotke, Dennis Quinn, Marc Roberts, Dave Robertson, Harvey Sapolsky, Joe Schwartz, Mark Silverstein, Jim Shoch, Ben Ross Sneider, Sven Steinmo, John Stephens, Peter Swenson, Rosemary Taylor, Steve Teles, Kathy Thelen, David Vogel, Kent Weaver, Margaret Weir, Graham Wilson, Søren Winter, Alan Wolfe, and Nick Ziegler. Thanks for their research assistance go to Michael Beebe, Kimberley Webb, and Kate White.
My family will be happy to know that this book is finally finished. My mother, Mary MacKenzie, deserves a major tribute for her help in copyediting. Thanks for their enduring support and encouragement also go to Bob and Patty Martin; Mary, Jim, Mike, Joe, and Christina Kozlowski; Robin, John, Katy, Patty, Jay, and Carly Hanley; Jim, Sidney, and Lindsey Martin; Julie and John Sheerman; Evelyn and Gordon Fitch; Ruth and Bob Milkey; Joanne, Michael, and Camille Ertel; and John, Lindley, Thomas, and Dean Milkey.
Thanks also to my friends who let me sleep in their guest rooms and provided other support in innumerable ways: Kari Moe and Bob Giloth, Nora Dudwick, Cathy Boone and Peter Trubowitz, Carol Conaway,