Glossary

a
aesthetics Initially, aesthetics was concerned with the study of ideas about beauty or taste. More recently, it has been concerned with the principles (or ‘rules’) of art as well as the broader aspects of artistic practice.
analog An image that is composed upon the principles of traditional technologies—of painting, drawing (see chirographic) or chemical photography.
anthropometric photography The use of the camera to record other cultures as a variety of types, concentrating on physical attributes—such as measurement—for scientific comparison.
aspect ratio The relationship between the width and height of the image produced by the camera that provides the proportions of the frame in which the photograph can be composed.

b
bracketing Having taken the correct light reading and made an exposure, the photographer makes two additional exposures, usually one stop below and one above the reading as a safety measure, especially in difficult lighting, or simply to give greater choice of selection and control of the subject.

c
camera Obscura A forerunner of the photographic camera, where a hole at the end of a dark room projects an inverted image onto the opposite wall. This principle could be used as a drawing aid for draughtsmen.
camera lucida A similar device to the camera obscura, but one which allows the draughtsman a simultaneous view of both the picture surface and the scene, enabling an image of the scene to be traced onto the paper.
Cartesian co-ordinates The technique of plotting position, or mapping an image, by means of x and y axes. The use of the grid on the Ordnance Survey map is an example.
CCD Charged Coupled Device: the light-sensitive surface of a digital camera which records the pattern of light in the form of a digital code.
chirographic An image produced by drawing, that is gradually built up from a trace made by a graphic tool such as a pencil.
cognitive A system of knowledge and how that knowledge is acquired.

-179-

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The Photography Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Acknowledgements ix
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Historical Outline of Photographic Representation 12
  • 2 - Pre-Production 36
  • 3 - The Photographic Image 68
  • 4 - Post-Production 89
  • 5 - The Documentary Photograph 118
  • 6 - Photography as a Cultural Critique 135
  • 7 - Characteristics of Digital Photography 151
  • 8 - Conclusion 173
  • Notes 176
  • Glossary 179
  • Bibliography 183
  • Index 191
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