9

French trading companies in sub-Saharan Africa 1960-90

Hélène d’Almeida-Topor

The French trading companies that acted as major economic players in francophone black Africa have gone through fundamental changes over the last three decades. After a period of expansion linked to the independence of the colonial territories, the political orientations of the new states, as well as changes in the international market, led to their concentration and, at the same time, to a redeployment of their activities. The successive oil crises and the resulting economic depression reinforced these trends. In the second half of the 1980s, business circles acknowledged that Africa was going through a long-term crisis (CNPF-CIAN Report 1988:XVII). Africa was being marginalised in international exchanges: its significance as a producer as well as a market was limited. Yet, was it necessary to abandon the continent? In spite of the troubles, French enterprises continued and even increased their presence in Africa. How did they adapt? Did the concept of ‘trading company’ mean the same thing in the 1990s as it had in the 1960s? In order to analyse this evolution, this chapter adopts a ‘macroeconomical’ approach that allows a global image of the French commercial presence in sub-Saharan Africa, while also demonstrating the diversity of the situation regarding the different types of enterprises, activities and countries.

The main sources employed in this chapter are the Annuaires des entreprises et organismes outre-mer. This has been systematically checked every five years, from 1955-56 through to 1989-90. The exhaustive character of this publication has enabled the compilation of a sample that is very close to the reality of all the existing trading companies. Two criteria have been used to decide whether a company is a ‘French trading company’ or not: on the one hand, it had to have its registered office in France or, at least, where the owners were French, to have an office or a correspondent there whenever its head office was located in Africa. On the other hand, a company had to mention the word ‘trade’ (or a derivative) in its name or in the description of its activities. Insurance companies, banks and credit organisations as well as engineering companies have, therefore, been excluded. Similarly, local enterprises, even where they were French-owned, were not included.

To begin with, a list was compiled of the French trading companies dealing with Africa according to the Annuaire des entreprises et organismes outre-mer

-173-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Multinational Traders
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 236

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.