Social Approaches to an Industrial Past: The Archaeology and Anthropology of Mining

By A. Bernard Knapp; Vincent C. Pigott et al. | Go to book overview

Chapter 11

Silver shackles and copper collars

Race, class and labor In the Arizona mining industry from the eighteenth century until World War II

Thomas E. Sheridan

ABSTRACT

The lure of silver and gold made Arizona shimmer in the dreams of prospectors and speculators during the Spanish colonial and early Anglo-American territorial periods, but it was copper, not precious metals, that drove the Arizona mining industry, beginning in the 1880s. From then until World War II, Arizona was dominated by extractive industries—the Three Cs of Copper, Cattle, and Cotton—but Copper was clearly king. Because copper was an industrial commodity, enormous quantities of ore had to be dug and enormous capital investments in mines, smelters and railroad transport had to be made. Moreover, copper mining required a large and stable workforce. Most of the early workers came from northern Mexico, but soon the immigrant surge that was reshaping eastern industrial America brought Cornish, Irish, German, Spanish, Italian, Croatian, Serbian and Finnish miners to Arizona’s isolated copper towns. Those towns often became ethnic battlegrounds as Anglo-Irish miners and the labor unions that organized them strove to exclude Mexican and southern European workers from the best-paying jobs. Some mining communities were segregated into ‘white men’s’ or ‘Mexican’ camps. Others instituted a differential wage scale for Anglo-Irish and Mexican miners, paying Mexicans less for the same jobs. Copper companies pitted ethnic groups against one another to cripple organized labor and depress wages. In Arizona’s copper towns, idioms of race undercut idioms of class to weaken working-class solidarity and forge the ‘copper collar’ that enabled the companies to break the unions during World War I, when xenophobic fears of sabotage helped brand all strikers as Wobblies (members of the Industrial Workers of the World). Unions did not regain power until after World War II, when Mexican-American veterans spearheaded successful strikes in the copper towns.


INTRODUCTION

To most casual observers, Arizona conjures up images of saguaro-studded deserts, Monument Valley or the Grand Canyon; of cowboys and Indians; and of open spaces. From the Spanish colonial period until World War II, however, mining

-174-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Social Approaches to an Industrial Past: The Archaeology and Anthropology of Mining
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 306

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.