Social Approaches to an Industrial Past: The Archaeology and Anthropology of Mining

By A. Bernard Knapp; Vincent C. Pigott et al. | Go to book overview

Chapter 14

Small-scale mining and smelting in ancient Cyprus

Vasiliki Kassianidou

ABSTRACT

Impressive slag heaps located in the mining areas of Cyprus’ Troodos Mountains are relics of the intensive exploitation of the island’s mineral resources and of a large-scale copper industry in antiquity. Yet only one primary smelting site has been excavated: this is a small copper workshop at Ayia Varvara Almyras. Traces of opencast mining and a small mine were located 30 m west of the smelting site. Its proximity to the ancient city of Idalion has raised the possibility that Almyras may have been one of the workshops supplying the kingdom of Idalion with copper. The archaeometallurgical finds include a roasting furnace and a variety of smelting furnaces, but slag is by far the most common find. The archaeological finds are limited to a small quantity of ceramic vessels, mainly of domestic and utilitarian nature, oil lamps, figurines and a spindle whorl. On the basis of the ceramic finds and radiocarbon dating of charcoal samples, the metallurgical activities at Almyras may be placed in three chronological phases, the earliest being the Cypro-Archaic (c. 600 BC) and the most recent the Hellenistic period (c. 150 BC). Before the discovery of Almyras, what we knew of the copper industry suggested that it was characterized by large-scale, centralized, state-run production areas, an impression confirmed in part by the enormous slag heaps. With the discovery of Almyras, however, we are now aware of another type of production centre which seems to have been active in parallel with the larger ones, but for a shorter period of time. This chapter presents the site of Almyras and discusses some of the ideas that have been formulated about the organization of an ancient small-scale copper-producing workshop.


INTRODUCTION

Although the earliest references to Cypriot copper (Muhly 1972:204) and the earliest archaeological evidence for mining in Cyprus (Merrillees 1984) date to the beginning of the second millennium BC, it is in the Late Bronze Age (LBA), in other words after the mid-second millennium BC, that large-scale production and long-distance trade of copper begin. From the LBA until the end of the

-226-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Social Approaches to an Industrial Past: The Archaeology and Anthropology of Mining
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 306

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.