Technology and Innovation in Japan: Policy and Management for the Twenty-First Century

By Martin Hemmert; Christian Oberländer | Go to book overview

TABLES
2.1 R&D expenditure by category of research in Japan (natural sciences only) 26
2.2 R&D expenditure among OECD countries 27
2.3 R&D expenditure by category of research in major industrialized countries 28
2.4 Expenditure for basic research by performing sector in major industrialized countries 29
2.5 Expenditure for basic research by performing sector in Japan 30
3.1 Government R&D spending in advanced countries 46
3.2 Trend of R&D intensity in major sectors of the Japanese manufacturing industry, 1976-90 54
4.1 Brief history of Japanese higher education after the Second World War 63
4.2 The growth of major university research funding 68
4.3 From traditional learning mode toward lifelong learning mode 69
5.1 Number of papers by Japanese authors on the Science Citation Index, 1981-93 72
5.2 Selected countries’ citations to the international scientific and technical literature 73
5.3 Patterns of international collaboration in the publication of scientific papers, 1988-93 (1981-87) 74
5.4 R&D expenditure per researcher 75
6.1 Comparison of managerial characteristics at ERATO and MITI-L: stable hierarchy and dynamic network 93
6.2 Comparison of organizational characteristics at ERATO and MITI-L 98
6.3 Comparison of mean communication frequencies at ERATO and MITI-L 100
6.4 Comparison of mean performance at ERATO and MITI-L 103
6.5 Multiple regressions on performance by internal and external communication at ERATO and MITI-L 104

-xii-

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