Regionalization and Globalization in the Modern World Economy: Perspectives on the Third World and Transitional Economies

By Alex E. Fernández Jilberto; André Mommen | Go to book overview

hegemonic’ system. In conclusion, one can say that in the Turkish society no ‘civil society’ emerged, and the strong position of the state continued. The ruling class was a permanent state (or state-related) class, and despite the efforts ‘from above’ no real ‘self-regulating’ society with a bourgeois class emerged. Social production relations were not able to construct a ‘hegemonical’ historic bloc. So if such a historic bloc was not able to develop in Turkish society, it is almost impossible for Turkey to fulfil a leading (or hegemonic) role at an international level.

BIBLIOGRAPHY


a
Ahmad, F. (1993) The Making of Modern Turkey, London: Routledge.
Aktan, O.H. (1996) ‘Liberalization, export incentives and exchange rate policy: Turkey’s experience in the 1980s’, in S. Togan and V.N. Balasubramanyan (eds) The Economy of Turkey since Liberalization, Basingstoke and London: Macmillan: 177-197.
Alatas, S.F. (1993) ‘The Asiatic mode of production and the formative Turkic and Iranian states in modern times’, Central Asian Survey 12(4): 473-496.
Ayata, S. (1996) ‘Patronage, party, and state: the politicization of Islam in Turkey’, The Middle East Journal 50(1): 40-56.

b
Balasubramanyan, V.N. (1996) ‘Foreign direct investment in Turkey’, in S. Togan and V.N. Balasubramanyan (eds) The Economy of Turkey since Liberalization, Basingstoke and London: Macmillan: 112-130.
Bill, J.A. and Springborg, R. (1994) Politics in the Middle East, New York: HarperCollins College Publishers.
Bolukbasi, S. (1997) ‘Ankara’s Baku-centered Transcaucasia policy: has it failed?’, The Middle East Journal 51(1): 80-94.
Bromley, S. (1994) Rethinking Middle East Politics, Cambridge: Polity Press.

c
Çarkoglu, A. (1997) ‘The Turkish general election of 24 December 1995’,Electoral Studies 16(1): 86-95.
Cox, R.W. (1983) ‘Gramsci, hegemony and international relations: an essay in method’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies 12(2): 162-175.
Cox, R.W. (1987) Production, Power and World Order. Social Forces in the Making of History, New York: Columbia University Press.

d
Dagi, I.D. (1993) ‘Turkey in the 1990s: foreign policy, human rights, and the search for a new identity’, Mediterranean Quarterly: A Journal of Global Issues 4(4): 60-77.
Dannreuther, R. (1994) ‘Creating new states in Central Asia’, Adelphi Paper 288 (March): 3-83.
Debergh, J.P. (1996) ‘De Turkse invloedssfeer na de implosie van de Sovjetunie’, in P.de Meyer, E. Franckx, J.-M. Henckaerts and K. Malfliet (eds) Oost-Europa in Europa. Eenheid en Verscheidenheid. Huldeboek aangeboden aan Frits Gorlé, Brussels: VUBPRESS: 113-130.

g
Gills, B.K. and Frank, A.G. (1992) ‘World system cycles, crises and hegemonical shifts, 1700 BC to 1700 AD’, Review, 15(4): 621-687.
Gramsci, A. (1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks, ed. by Q. Hoare, G.N. Smith, New York: International Publishers.

h
Hale, W. (1994) Turkish Politics and the Military, London and New York: Routledge.
Heper, M. (1997) ‘Islam and democracy in Turkey: toward a reconciliation?’, The Middle East Journal 51(1): 30-45.
Hine, R.C. (1996) ‘Turkey and the European Community: regional integration and economic convergence’, in S. Togon and V.N. Balasubramanyan (eds) The Economy of Turkey since Liberalization, Basingstoke and London: Macmillan: 131-154.
Hunter, S.T. (1996) Central Asia since Independence, Westport, CONN and London: Praeger.

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