Regionalization and Globalization in the Modern World Economy: Perspectives on the Third World and Transitional Economies

By Alex E. Fernández Jilberto; André Mommen | Go to book overview

12

TRADE LIBERALIZATION AND ECONOMIC INTEGRATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA

Oscar Catalán Aravena

INTRODUCTION

The crisis of the 1980s revealed the failure of the import substitution model in Central America which had inspired the successful regional economic integration of the 1960s and 1970s. The initial response to the crisis was to implement unilateral protectionist measures; later on unilateral stabilization and adjustment programmes were applied, with the consequent abandonment of the instruments of integration.

In the first half of the 1990s, the end of the Cold War made it possible to implement the peace agreements which the governments of the region had been proposing for the past decade. In economic terms, the regional situation came to be marked by apparently contradictory tendencies: on the one hand, the continuation and deepening of the structural adjustment begun in the 1980s, on the other hand, an evident willingness to resume the recently abandoned regional economic integration and to breathe new life into the Central American Common Market (Mercado Común Centro Americano).

At the international level, the post-Cold War period has also been marked by apparently contradictory economic tendencies: the globalization of the economies, and the expansion and consolidation of the large trade blocs which dominate international trade. It would appear that, despite the indisputable triumph of neo-liberal ideology on a world-wide scale, these strategic trade policies continue to dominate commercial policy in practice. The grouping of the industrialized countries in trade blocs would seem to support the idea that commercial liberalization does not lead to an economic optimum, and that the promotion of exports should be combined with deliberate and selective protection of strategic industrial sectors.

In Central America, the new impulse towards regional cooperation raises questions about the economic relevance of integration within a context of liberalization and reinsertion into the world market. The aims of this chapter are to grasp the logic of the renewed willingness to integrate in Central America, and to see to what extent the commercial opening up promoted by the structural adjustment programmes is in contradiction with, or is complementary to, the new regional economic integration.

-287-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Regionalization and Globalization in the Modern World Economy: Perspectives on the Third World and Transitional Economies
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 368

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.