Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring, first published in 1962, probably contributed more than any other publication to initiating the current concern for environment. The book primarily deals with pesticide-related pollution. In the 1960s and even into the 1970s, environmental concern was primarily pollution-related. The pollution was perceived as deriving from anthropogenic sources such as thermal power plants, chemical industry, untreated waste water, marine oil spills. There were serious attempts at environmental management at the national level, for example, the passing of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1969 in the United States requiring environmental evaluation of new projects and the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency.
Environmental concern grew into a popular movement which observed the first Earthday in 1970. A number of organizations drew attention to the progressively degrading environmental conditions. These organizations, being popular movements, were known as the non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The number of books on environmental issues proliferated, spreading awareness, although some of these now read very strangely. The Stockholm Conference in 1972 extended the national and local awareness to the global level, and related environmental management with economic and social development.
The Stockholm meeting was called by the United Nations with Maurice Strong as the conference secretary-general. Originally, it was planned to deal with