6
Entrepreneurial Behavior

The research studies so far reported deal exclusively with estimates of the importance of certain motives or values for a whole nation or culture. They are not, therefore, very illuminating as to the process whereby a motivational level affects economic development. Certainly we are not likely to he satisfied with some such vague concept as a "group mind" which somehow expresses its feelings and aspirations in vigorous economic activity. It should be possible to trace the motivational connection in much more detail. How specifically does a high level of n Achievement result in more rapid economic development? The link is obviously the entrepreneur --the man who organizes the firm (the business unit) and/or increases its productive capacity.

In its most general terms, the hypothesis states that a society with a generally high level of n Achievement will produce more energetic entrepreneurs who, in turn, produce more rapid economic development. But such a simple statement is loaded with difficulties. What, exactly, is an entrepreneur? In what sense is he crucial for economic development? It is true that ever since Schumpeter revived interest in entrepreneurship, many if not most economists and sociologists interested in economic development insist on the importance of the entrepreneur. Thus Hoselitz can write, "If the theorists of capitalism agree on anything, they agree on the fact that with the rise of capitalist production a new class or group of men--call them bourgeois, or entrepreneurs, or businessmen--attained first positions of leadership in the economy and later also in the political and other élites." ( Hoselitz, 1953.) But what about Communist States like Russia? Is the entrepreneur just as important for them? For that matter, what about the classical economists who discuss economic development in terms of inputs and outputs, referring to entrepreneurship, if at all, only vaguely and in passing, possibly because they have as yet found no way to quantify its "quality." Even if we can succeed in defining an entrepreneur and obtaining agreement that he is a key figure in economic development, will he necessarily have higher n Achievement than people in other occupations of equal prestige and importance? If entrepreneurs do have higher n Achievement, did they develop it after entering into their occupation as a response to its pressures or did n Achievement lead them to enter and/or perform successfully in the occupation? If the latter be true, why should a high level of

-205-

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The Achieving Society
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xiii
  • 1 - Explaining Economic Growth 1
  • 2 - The Achievement Motive: How it is Measured and Its Possible Economic Effects 36
  • 3 - Achieving Societies in the Modern World 63
  • 4 - Achieving Societies in the Past 107
  • 5 - Other Psychological Factors in Economic Development 159
  • 6 - Entrepreneurial Behavior 205
  • 7 - Characteristics of Entrepreneurs 259
  • 8 - The Spirit of Hermes 301
  • 9 - Sources of N Achievement 336
  • 10 - Accelerating Economic Growth 391
  • References 439
  • Appendices 451
  • Appendix I 453
  • Appendix II 461
  • Appendix III 464
  • Appendix IV 475
  • Appendix V 488
  • Appendix VI 492
  • Appendix VII 494
  • List of Tables 499
  • Index 503
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