Appendix IV

Comparative Validity of Verbal and Graphic Measures of n Achievement in Four Countries

As recorded in Chapter 8, a serious difficulty arose in the research on n Achievement correlates among adolescent boys in four countries when it was discovered that the n Achievement scores based on fantasy did not correlate appreciably in any of the countries with the graphic expression characteristics repeatedly found by Aronson ( 1958) to correlate with verbal n Achievement in the United States. How was the result to be interpreted? The simplest hypothesis is that Aronson's relationships were either a rare chance occurrence or obtainable only in U.S. college males-- i.e., boys with high n Achievement do not express themselves graphically the same way abroad.

But there is another possibility--the relationships may not have been obtained abroad because testing conditions for one or the other or both of the two measures may not have been comparable to those in the United States. It needs investigation because studies in the United States have shown that at least the verbal measure of n Achievement is easily influenced by situational pressures. If the stories are obtained under achivement-oriented conditions, the n Achievement scores are no longer valid measures of individual differences in n Achievement in the sense that they now no longer correlate with other behaviors of the individuals ( McClellandet al., 1953). Similarly, the graphic expression test may be influenced by the conditions surrounding its administration in ways not as yet investigated.

First, attention was turned to coding errors or testing conditions which may have invalidated the verbal n Achievement scores. Coding errors are of course always possible and hard to control when one is dealing with different languages and different coders. The German protocols were coded in German and the Brazilian protocols in Portuguese by judges who had repeatedly checked their scoring reliability against American judges working on the same material in English. The reliability coefficients varied in the range of .72 to .82, which is lower than for protocols rescored in English, but probably as high as can be obtained across two languages because modes of expression in other languages do not fit exactly the coding definitions

-475-

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The Achieving Society
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xiii
  • 1 - Explaining Economic Growth 1
  • 2 - The Achievement Motive: How it is Measured and Its Possible Economic Effects 36
  • 3 - Achieving Societies in the Modern World 63
  • 4 - Achieving Societies in the Past 107
  • 5 - Other Psychological Factors in Economic Development 159
  • 6 - Entrepreneurial Behavior 205
  • 7 - Characteristics of Entrepreneurs 259
  • 8 - The Spirit of Hermes 301
  • 9 - Sources of N Achievement 336
  • 10 - Accelerating Economic Growth 391
  • References 439
  • Appendices 451
  • Appendix I 453
  • Appendix II 461
  • Appendix III 464
  • Appendix IV 475
  • Appendix V 488
  • Appendix VI 492
  • Appendix VII 494
  • List of Tables 499
  • Index 503
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