Appendix V
Codes and scores from the cross-cultural study of preliterate tribes.

A. RELIGION CODE
I. Mode of divine contact for average member of religious group Divine is contacted by the individual
a. Contact made directly through individual's own efforts (as in mysticism, and not through ritual magic phrases, etc.). "Original" private prayer, contemplation, etc. Scoring weight = +3.
b. Contact made indirectly through the group. Ritual action in which the Divine acts on the individual (and individual is not simply worshipping). E.g., group-induced trances, Quaker meetings, revival meetings, Dionysianism, etc. Scoring weight = +3.
c. Contact made indirectly through fairly precise oral or written traditions. (e.g., The Bible, Koran, Navaho songs, elaborate ritual superstitions) or in routine ways (e.g., Evil Spirits menace at fixed times or places).
1. Room for considerable individual interpretation (e.g., Protestant reading of Bible verses). Scoring weight = +3.
2. Memorization, little or no individual interpretation. Scoring weight = +1.
II. Role of Experts
a. Minor or nonexistent. Individual must learn or act by himself. Scoring weight = +2.
b. Major teachers of individuals (e.g., Rabbis). Scoring weight = +2.
c. Necessary mediators; ordinary person cannot perform chief religious duties alone. Special magic attached to Divine Mediator, may be clearly set off by rank (e.g., priests, shamans). Experts essential in religious organization. Scoring weight = +1.
III. Objective of Divine-Human Contact (immediate aim)
a. Ethics: religious service in order to learn right conduct toward others (and toward the world) and to gain divine favor ultimately by action. Scoring weight = +3.
b. Self-Improvement: holiness ; to escape pain, feel better. Buddhism, peace of mind, religion as therapy, heightened awareness, excitement. Scoring weight = +1.
c. Worship: to please God or Spirits (and gain favor, avoid disfavor) by ritual action, superstitions, taboos, offerings, etc. Scoring weight = +1.

-488-

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The Achieving Society
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xiii
  • 1 - Explaining Economic Growth 1
  • 2 - The Achievement Motive: How it is Measured and Its Possible Economic Effects 36
  • 3 - Achieving Societies in the Modern World 63
  • 4 - Achieving Societies in the Past 107
  • 5 - Other Psychological Factors in Economic Development 159
  • 6 - Entrepreneurial Behavior 205
  • 7 - Characteristics of Entrepreneurs 259
  • 8 - The Spirit of Hermes 301
  • 9 - Sources of N Achievement 336
  • 10 - Accelerating Economic Growth 391
  • References 439
  • Appendices 451
  • Appendix I 453
  • Appendix II 461
  • Appendix III 464
  • Appendix IV 475
  • Appendix V 488
  • Appendix VI 492
  • Appendix VII 494
  • List of Tables 499
  • Index 503
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