Europe and England in the Sixteenth Century

By T. A. Morris | Go to book overview
Chapter FourThe First Generation of Religious Reform55
The historical debate 57
German thought on the eve of the Reformation 58
Martin Luther 58
Theological influences upon Luther 59
The Indulgences Controversy, 1517-19 59
Luther and the printing press 61
A summary of Luther’s theology 62
Luther’s political conservatism 63
Condemnation by pope and emperor 63
The impact of Lutheranism 64
The condition of Switzerland 68
Huldrych Zwingli 69
The Reformation in Zurich 69
Zwinglianism and its impact 70
Religious civil war in Switzerland 70
Anabaptism 71
The spread and impact of Anabaptism 72
Chapter FiveCalvin and Calvinism74
Jean Calvin 76
The Institutes of the Christian Religion76
Calvin’s theology 76
Calvin and the Reformation in Geneva 77
The Ecclesiastical Ordinances79
Political opposition in Geneva 80
Religious opposition in Geneva 80
The international impact of Calvinism 81
Chapter SixThe Catholic Counter-Reformation85
The historical debate 87
Catholic revival before Luther 87
Religious revival and the state 88
The new orders 88
The foundation of the Jesuits 89
The achievement of the Jesuits 89
The papacy and reform, 1513-42 90
The politics of the Council of Trent 91
The Council of Trent: conclusions 92
The Catholic Reformation in action 93
The culture of the Catholic Reformation 98

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