That victorious Romania was bordered by two defeated states, Hungary and Bulgaria, and two untouchables, Hungary and Russia, meant that in territorial terms it was amongst the most favoured of the post-war states. By means of the peace treaties it doubled in size and population, acquiring the Banat and Transylvania from Hungary, northern Bukovina from Austria, and Bessarabia (eastern Moldavia or Moldova) from Russia, whilst Romanian possession of the southern Dobrudja, acquired from Bulgaria in 1913, was confirmed: greater Romania was the second largest state in eastern Europe.
This vast increase in size inevitably affected the political life of Romania between the wars. There were the familiar problems of integration. The economic systems of the new territories had evolved in different conditions to those of the original kingdom, the regat. Their railway networks were focused upon the former Hungarian, Austrian and Russian systems; their trading links were with areas not connected commercially to the regat; their monetary systems and legal codes were different, as were their tax structures. Romania tackled these difficulties in much the same way as Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. By 1923 all railways in greater Romania were using the same gauge; a common currency, the Romanian lei, had been imposed; and measures were in hand to harmonise the various legal systems. Forceful steps had also been taken to break old trading relationships and channel exports from the new territories in the direction required by the rulers in Bucharest.
It was much less easy to integrate the populations of the new territories. The regat had been a Romanian nation state in which the Romanians comprised 92 per cent of the population. Greater Romania was a state of nationalities in which the Romanians formed only 70 per cent of the total. Each of the new territories contained sizeable numbers of non-Romanians. In the Dobrudja there were Bulgarians, Tatars, Turks, and Gypsies; Bessarabia had large numbers of Ukrainians as well as communities of Bulgarians, Gypsies, Jews, and Gagauze or Turkish-speaking Christians; Jews, Germans, Ukrainians, and Gypsies were also to be found in the Bukovina; Transylvania was populated by Hungarians, the Hun-