This book has derived from a doctoral thesis undertaken with the help of an Archival Studentship at Southampton University’s history department. A further two years at the Queen’s University of Belfast as a post-doctoral research fellow in the department of politics enabled me to expand the chronology of the book and to reflect upon themes and issues raised by the thesis. To my colleagues in both departments, and the students I had the pleasure to teach, I owe a debt of gratitude for providing both intellectual stimulation and friendship. In the course of my research I have incurred numerous debts from friends, fellow academics, librarians, archivists and officers of Conservative associations. Although there are too many to thank individually I must acknowledge that without your help this book would never have been written. To my colleagues at the Institute of Contemporary British History I must thank you for your patience with me as I brooded over this script during the past six months. From the days of my thesis I must thank my supervisors Tony Kushner and Martin Alexander. They kept my nose to the grindstone and provided the essential working lunches necessary to replenish a malnourished graduate researcher. Both men were, and have since, been more than generous with their time and minds. Martin must bear the responsibility of first interesting me in this period when I took his final year special subject as an undergraduate. I have incurred a debt to Stuart Ball from the very beginning of my research. His encyclopaedic knowledge of the location of Conservative association records has been an enormous benefit. Richard Aldous, Peter Catterall, Robert Walsha, Roger Eglin and Alison Kemp, all of who have read and commented upon various drafts of this book, and tolerated my poor spelling and grammar, have incurred my gratitude. Needless to say the views expressed and any mistakes made are those of the author alone.