Shopfloor Matters: Labor-Management Relations in Twentieth-Century American Manufacturing

By David Fairris | Go to book overview

DATA APPENDIX

The data for the analyses preceding the presentation of Table 1.1 results come from the following sources: separation rates come from two field investigations conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (one in 1914 and another in 1918, both investigating turnover during a twelve-month period ending roughly in the middle of the survey year) covering nearly 260 establishments, and employing over 500,000 workers (Brissenden and Frankel 1920:1,350); union growth rates are from Wolman’s analysis of union records, including principally, but not exclusively, the American Federation of Labor’s annual report on membership in each of its affiliates (Wolman 1924:88); strike data are compiled from two Bureau of Labor Statistics studies (Peterson 1937:38; US Department of Labor 1917:604), and derive from follow-up surveys of firms and unions reported to have been involved in a strike by a newspaper, labor or trade journal, or other printed source; and the data on welfare measures, their administration and impact, are from a 1916-17 Bureau of Labor Statistics investigation of 431 establishments, employing over 1,500,000 workers (US Department of Labor 1919:15, 34, 43, 54, 70, 82, 89, and 119).

Many problems exist with the data. None of the surveys claims to be representative samples of American industry. Perhaps more importantly, there may well be significant inconsistency in the industrial classifications. Because no well-defined scheme of industrial classification existed at this time, it is quite possible for a particular category—for example, iron and steel—to embrace different sets of firms in different surveys, sampling differences aside. In one instance an inconsistency was imposed by the author: the data on welfare measures in the “food products” industry are joined with separation rates and strikes in “slaughtering and meat packing” to form what I have labeled the “food products” industry.

The precise definitions of the variables used in the analyses are as follows: separation rate is the percentage change in quits, discharges, and layoffs per 10,000 labor hours between 1913 and 1914 and between 1917 and 1918; strike growth is the percentage change in the number of strikes from 1914 to the average for the period 1915-20 (in four of the eight industries, the base year 1914 was unavailable, so 1915 was used instead for comparison with the average for 1916-20); union growth is the percentage change between 1910 and 1920 in the percent of the labor force organized in each industry; welfare index is the average of the percentage of establishments in each

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Shopfloor Matters: Labor-Management Relations in Twentieth-Century American Manufacturing
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - From Exit to Voice in Shopfloor Governance 17
  • 2 - The Amoskeag Plan of Representation 47
  • 3 - The Rise of an Empowered Shopfloor Voice 57
  • 4 - Labor-Management Disputes in Meat Packing, 1936-41 89
  • 5 - Institutionalization and Decline in Workers’ Shopfloor Power 99
  • 6 - Postwar Collective-Bargaining Agreements 139
  • 7 - Contemporary Experiments with New Systems of Shopfloor Governance 146
  • 8 - A Visit to Saturn 168
  • 9 - The Future of Us Shopfloor Governance 175
  • Appendix Tables 191
  • Data Appendix 198
  • Notes 204
  • Bibliography 219
  • Index 230
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