7

THE SPECIFICATION OF TOPICS

7.1. INTRODUCTION
At the end of Chapter 1 we introduced the two clines of Marking and Explicitness. Taken jointly these two clines stretch from explicit literal comparison to inexplicit metaphor. Chapter 6 discussed how metaphors can be marked by simile and other markers of comparison (Table 6.1, stage III). This chapter deals with one aspect of explicitness—how the indeterminacy or open-endedness of metaphorical meaning can be diminished by explicitly specifying the Topic (Table 6.1, stage IV (p. 168)). It attempts two main things: first, to give an overview of the syntactic resources available; and second, to demonstrate how the syntactic choices made, with their options for ordering and clausal ranking of V-term and T-term, and so on, will affect the interpretations of metaphors; specifically, how lexical metaphor will impinge on grammar by introducing or enhancing ambiguities in the meanings of syntax. There is certainly a need for an in-depth investigation of the syntax of metaphor though Brooke-Rose (1958) and Genette (1970) were pioneers in the field and some useful recent work has been done by Stockwell (1992a). Much of the psychological research on metaphor ignores syntax at its peril, but the neglect spoils some of the insights of linguists too. For instance, Lakoff and Johnson (1980) fail to take it into account when discussing metaphorical mixing. They claim that what makes the following examples of mixing permissible and impermissible respectively is that the two metaphorical schemata involved do or do not share entailments.
(1) At this point our argument doesn’t have much content. (Lakoff and Johnson 1980:92)
(2) The content of the argument proceeds as follows, (ibid.: 95)

It seems equally likely that it is the intimacy of the syntactic bond between subject and verb in (2) which makes for a sense of mixing, whereas (1) only has a distant bond between prepositional complement and object of the

-198-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Language of Metaphors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations ix
  • Tables x
  • Acknowledgements xi
  • Abbreviations xv
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Metaphorical and Literal Language 14
  • 2 - Metaphor and the Dictionary 41
  • 3 - Metaphor and the Dictionary 82
  • 4 - How Different Kinds of Metaphors Work 107
  • 5 - Relevance Theory and the Functions of Metaphor 137
  • 6 - The Signalling of Metaphor 168
  • 7 - The Specification of Topics 198
  • 8 - The Specification of Grounds 229
  • 9 - The Interplay of Metaphors 255
  • 10 - Metaphor in Its Social Context 283
  • Notes 329
  • References 335
  • Texts Used for Examples and Analysis (and Abbreviations Used in References) 342
  • Index 347
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 360

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.