NOTES

INTRODUCTION
1
I use the term refer in its everyday sense, rather than in the sense which distinguishes it from predication. In other words, I opt for the possibility of saying that predicates refer to concepts (Searle 1969:118). More discussion of reference as it operates in my definition is found in Chapter 4.

1 METAPHORICAL AND LITERAL LANGUAGE
1
This was a preoccupation of Bakhtin (see Holquist 1990:146-8).
2
When a child goes through such an experience, it will produce a permanent change in her cognitive categories, whereas when adults respond to metaphors of, say, a literary kind, no such changes are introduced; indeed, the tension between the two concepts needs to be maintained for them to interact, and for them to go on interacting when the text is reread.
3
For evidence in the psychological literature see Gibbs (1984), Hoffman and Kemper (1987).

2 METAPHOR AND THE DICTIONARY: ROOT ANALOGIES
1
On my Figure 2.1, the map of Root Analogies, I have indicated my indebtedness as follows. When the Root Analogy is followed by a number in brackets this indicates where it, or a synonymous analogy, was first identified or discussed. (1) refers to Lakoff and Johnson (1980); (2) refers to Johnson (1987); (3) refers to Lakoff and Turner (1989). In the case of Johnson (1987), very often the analogy is not explicitly stated but may be inferred from his discussion of image schemata.

(1) Lakoff and Johnson (1980): Argument is War (p. 4); Ideas (meanings) are Objects (p. 10); Communication is Sending (p. 10); Happy is Up (p. 15); Conscious is Up (p. 15); Health is Up (p. 15); Control is Up (p. 15); More is Up (p. 15); Good is Up (p. 16); Status is Up (p. 16) Known is Down (p. 20); Mind is an Entity (p. 27); Mind is a Machine (p. 27); Place for the Event (p. 40); Theories (and Arguments) are Buildings (p. 46); Ideas are Food (p. 46); Ideas are People (p. 47); Ideas are Plants (p. 47); Understanding is Seeing (p. 48); Emotional Effect is Physical Contact (p. 50).

(2) Johnson (1987): Sane is Balanced (p. 88); Responsibility is Weight (p. 89); Justice is Straight (p. 90); Amount is Dimension (pp. 90, 123); Activity is

-329-

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The Language of Metaphors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations ix
  • Tables x
  • Acknowledgements xi
  • Abbreviations xv
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Metaphorical and Literal Language 14
  • 2 - Metaphor and the Dictionary 41
  • 3 - Metaphor and the Dictionary 82
  • 4 - How Different Kinds of Metaphors Work 107
  • 5 - Relevance Theory and the Functions of Metaphor 137
  • 6 - The Signalling of Metaphor 168
  • 7 - The Specification of Topics 198
  • 8 - The Specification of Grounds 229
  • 9 - The Interplay of Metaphors 255
  • 10 - Metaphor in Its Social Context 283
  • Notes 329
  • References 335
  • Texts Used for Examples and Analysis (and Abbreviations Used in References) 342
  • Index 347
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