World Trade after the Uruguay Round: Prospects and Policy Options for the Twenty-First Century

By Harald Sander; András Inotai | Go to book overview

NOTES
1
Extracts from The Uruguay Round: An Assessment, Jeffrey J. Schott, Washington DC: Institute for International Economics. Copyright: Institute for International Economics, 1994. All rights reserved.
2
This chapter draws heavily on Schott (1994).
3
In rare instances, the Ministerial Conference can require, subject to a three-fourths majority vote, that a WTO member must accept an amendment or withdraw from the organisation.
4
In truth, the effects of labour standards and practices on trade is not a new issue, and has long been a subject of national and international debate. In 1890, the US Congress banned imports of prison-made goods. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) established the International Labour Organization (ILO) which to date has adopted 172 conventions on labour standards covering virtually every aspect of employment and labour relations. The stillborn ITO Charter (1948) also contained a chapter on labour and employment recognising that unfair labour conditions, particularly in the production for exports, could create difficulties in international trade, and committing countries to eliminate such conditions within their borders.
5
For example, trade sanctions have been levied against countries that have inadequate conservation practices (e.g. the US Marine Mammal Protection Act), or are not signatory to an international environmental treaty (e.g. discriminatory treatment under the Montreal Protocol). Import curbs have also been used as a means of safeguarding foreign and domestic workplace safety (e.g. 1905 Berne Convention banning production and imports of matches made with hazardous white and yellow phosphorus).
6
Past attempts to operate a GATT steering group, the CG-18, failed badly. The group was essentially a microcosm of the Committee of the Whole with all its warts and blemishes.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

h
Hudec, R.E. (1994) ‘“Dispute Settlement” in OECD Documents’, The New World Trading System: Readings, Paris: OECD.

j
Jackson, J.H. (1994) ‘Managing the Trading System: The World Trade Organization and the Post-Uruguay Round GATT Agenda’, in P.B. Kenen (ed.) Managing the World Economy: Fifty Years after Bretton Woods, Washington DC: Institute for International Economics.

l
Leutwiler, F. et al. (1985) Trade Policies for a Better Future: Proposals for Action, Geneva: GATT.

s
Schott, J.J., assisted by J.W. Buurman (1994) The Uruguay Round: An Assessment, Washington DC: Institute for International Economics.

-114-

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