Strangers Settled Here Amongst Us: Policies, Perceptions, and the Presence of Aliens in Elizabethan England

By Laura Hunt Yungblut | Go to book overview

CONCLUSION

When Elizabeth I came to the English throne in 1558, she and her councillors faced the bleak prospects of an economy in decline, an unpopular war against France to aid Spanish allies, the religious divisions rending the Continent that came also into her realm, and dangerously shifting diplomatic sands off her shores as the forces of Protestantism and Catholicism lined up for battle. When she died forty-five years later, many of the same conditions appeared to prevail, but there were critical differences. Now the English fought the Spanish in the Dutch war, Catholicism in England had been repressed if not eliminated, and, although the economy had again gone into a decline, there were many indicators that England was no longer technologically a ‘poor relation’ to Continental countries. Most tellingly, Elizabeth died in her bed, a woman who had ruled for nearly half a century with her power intact.

This study’s principal mission has been to examine the complex interaction between the presence of the aliens, perceptions about that presence, and the subsequent formulation of Crown policy in the Elizabethan era. The interplay between these factors and the decisions born of that interplay constituted an important part of the Elizabethan success story. Governmental policy-making was influenced by the aliens, by native reactions to them, and by historical circumstances which were marked by continual upheaval and change, and shifting realities. These were all in turn influenced by policy. The Queen and her councillors largely broke with the past by deliberately pursuing policies with an eye to long-term advantages rather than pandering to short-term political expedience. Nevertheless, they also had to consider the immediate consequences of their policies as they sought to achieve security and

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Strangers Settled Here Amongst Us: Policies, Perceptions, and the Presence of Aliens in Elizabethan England
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Tables vi
  • Maps vii
  • Preface viii
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - ‘strangers Settled Here’ 9
  • 2 - Dichotomies in English Attitudes Toward the Aliens 36
  • 3 - The Presence of Aliens and Government Policy in the Reign of Elizabeth I 61
  • 4 - Aliens, Policy, and the Elizabethan Economy 95
  • Conclusion 114
  • Appendix A—colchester Contribution Book to the Poor (1582-92) 118
  • Appendix B—norwich Book of Orders for Dutch and Walloon Strangers, 1564-1643 [nro Mf/Ro 31/1] 122
  • Notes 128
  • Bibliography 160
  • Index 173
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