Segregation and Apartheid in Twentieth-Century South Africa

By William Beinart; Saul Dubow | Go to book overview

GLOSSARY

a
African: term usually applied to describe Bantu-speaking indigenous peoples of Southern Africa.
Afrikaner: ‘white’ speakers of Afrikaans (a language derived principally from Dutch), many of whom are—or claim to be—the descendants of early settlers at the Cape.
ANC: the African National Congress, founded in 1912, is the oldest and most influential of the liberation movements. Under the leadership of Nelson Mandela, the ANC came to power in South Africa in 1994.
articulation: theoretical concept developed particularly in Marxist anthropology. Refers to the interlocking relationships that exist when ‘pre-capitalist’ and ‘capitalist’ forms of production meet.
Asian/Indian: term used to describe the descendants of immigrants from the Indian subcontinent, many of whom were originally recruited in the 1860s as indentured labourers for the sugar plantations of Natal.

b
Bambatha: the Bambatha rebellion of 1906 arose out of resistance in Zululand to the imposition by the colonial authorities of a poll tax. This act of defiance has been seen as perhaps the last expression of armed ‘primary resistance’ to white colonial rule in South Africa. The revolt was ruthlessly crushed by the government forces; as many as 4,000 Africans were killed during its suppression, along with Chief Bambatha himself.
Bantustan: the term applied in the 1950s to areas reserved for African occupation (hence ‘reserves’). Many of these had existed since the nineteenth century and included the heartlands of some old African chiefdoms. The Nationalist government intended to extend and consolidate them into ten units, pushing the total area to over 13 per cent of the total land surface. They were given a form of self-rule which was later intended to become political independence. ‘Bantustan’, initially used by H.F. Verwoerd, was taken up by the opposition critical of the balkanization of the country, as a disparaging term for these mini- and micro-states or ‘homelands’.

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