The “double movement” thesis was originally developed by Karl Polanyi (1945); he
argues that, because economic liberalization aggravates economic inequalities and destroys many social and cultural patterns of life, it will lead to a social backlash.
The WTO website provides comprehensive information and analysis on regionalism
world-wide. In 1996 the WTO General Council created the Committee on Regional
Trade Agreements, which examines RTAs to assess whether they are consistent with
WTO rules and how they affect the multilateral trade system; see http://www.wto.org/
For a comprehensive analysis of different economic integration schemes, see El-Agraa
There is a voluminous literature on the relation between RTAs and multilateralism
which cannot be cited here. A good flavour of the debate is given in Bhagwati and
Pangariya (1996); see also Winters (1999).
The old regionalism is built upon the seminal work of customs union theory by Jacob
For the essentials of new regionalism theory, see Lawrence (1995) and Ethier (2001).
For an analysis of the relation between trade and investment in the globalizing economy, see Gavin (2001a).
See Trading Health Care Away? (2001).
This model is derived from Rodrik (2000). The principles of the international economic
order that underpin the model of governance are discussed by Valaskakis (2001).
The links between trade and financial liberalization are analysed in Gavin (2001b).
For a discussion of the original concept of multi-level governance, see Wessels (1997).
For a more recent analysis, see Hooghe and Marks (2001). The European Commission
published its White Paper on Governance in July 2001 as a basis for consultation with
the major stakeholders.
The fusion of internal and external governance is discussed by Telo (2002).
Bhagwati, J. N., and A. Pangariya (1996), “Preferential Trading Areas and Multilateralism: Strangers, Friends or Foes?” in J. N. Bhagwati and A. Pangariya
(eds.), Free Trade Areas or Free Trade? The Economics of Preferential Trade Agreements, Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute.
Breslin, S., and R. Higgott (2001). “Studying Regions: Learning from the Old,
Constructing the New”, New Political Economy 5(3), pp. 333–52.
El-Agraa, A. M. (1997), Economic Integration Worldwide. London: Macmillan.
Esty, D. C. (2002), “The World Trade Organization's Legitimacy Crisis”, World Trade Review 1(1), pp. 7–22.
Ethier, W. J. (2001), “Regional Regionalism”, in S. Lahiri (ed.), Regionalism and Globalization, London: Routledge.
Finger, J. M., and J. J. Nogues (2002), “The Unbalanced Uruguay Round Outcome: The New Areas in Future WTO Negotiations”, The World Economy
25(3), pp. 321–39.
Fratianni, M., and J. Pattison (2001), “International Organisations in a World of