Understanding the dynamics of campaigning online requires getting beyond the set of operating assumptions that had come into widespread use by the late 1990s on the part of campaign professionals and candidates. As we saw in the last chapter, by 2000 campaigns were making quite sophisticated communication efforts based on the observation that supporters of the candidates compose the most important element of Web audiences. But the details of the audiences for political Web sites and how they react to their experiences with candidates' online materials have remained almost a complete mystery both to researchers and political professionals themselves. In politics, like other endeavors, knowing how to target a message based on the specifics of an audience is very important. How many Americans actually saw George Bush's site? What portion of Bush's audience were women compared with Al Gore's audience, and how favorably did men as opposed to women respond to these sites? What motivated people to visit Ralph Nader's site compared with the sites of his major-party competitors? What kind of voters crossed over, so to speak, and voluntarily viewed the Web site of a candidate they did not support?