Understanding Genocide: The Social Psychology of the Holocaust

By Leonard S. Newman; Ralph Erber | Go to book overview

7
Examining the Implications of
Cultural Frames on Social
Movements and Group Action
Daphna Oyserman and Armand Lauffer

We are all members of groups, as well as separate individuals. being a member of a group means sharing something with other members of the group. durkheim's (1899/1947) classic analysis of societies highlights differences between simple groups, in which everyone does the same thing, and complex groups, in which members take on different roles to sustain the group but share some common beliefs. modern societies can be thought of as complex groups, yet even in modern societies, durkheim noted, members must have some “similarities of beliefs” if the group is to function. another way to describe these ‘similarities of beliefs’ is to discuss common values or value frames, perspectives, or worldviews. for example, a core value frame for american society is individualism—the pursuit of individual goals, individual advancement, individual happiness, and individual freedom is a core similarity of belief that unites americans. this core value influences our laws, institutions, and social practices, and explicit rejection of individualism is seen as un-american. by sharing this “similarity of belief” or value frame, americans have a common perspective; indeed, following durkheim, it is reasonable to assume that every group develops some group-specific values, norms, and values. of greater interest for this chapter are the similarities between groups within a society and systematic differences across societies in the extent that individualism is valued and the extent that groups or collectives are valued. valuation of individual versus group interests is a key to understanding cultures (hofstede, 1980).

A brief look at recent world history highlights a link between salient cultural worldviews and organized violence against out-groups. during the past century, murders of more than a million civilians were essentially the prov-

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Understanding Genocide: The Social Psychology of the Holocaust
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Preface *
  • Contents ix
  • Contributors xi
  • Understanding Genocide *
  • Introduction 3
  • Notes 7
  • Part I - Becoming a Perpetrator 10
  • 1 - The Psychology of Bystanders, Perpetrators, and Heroic Helpers 11
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 2 - The Person Versus the Situation in Goldhagen's Hitler's Willing Executioners 43
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 3 - Some Cognitive and Affective Implications 68
  • References *
  • 4 - An Evaluation of Stanley Milgram's Perspective, the Most Influential Social-Psychological Approach to the Holocaust 91
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Part II - Beyond the Individual: Groups and Collectives 111
  • 5 - Envious Prejudice, Ideology, and the Scapegoating of Jews 113
  • Notes 140
  • References *
  • 6 - Group Processes and the Holocaust 143
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 7 - Examining the Implications of Cultural Frames on Social Movements and Group Action 162
  • References *
  • 8 - Preconditions for the Holocaust from a Control-Theoretical Perspective 188
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 9 - The Zoomorphism of Human Collective Violence 222
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Part III - Dealing with Evil 240
  • 10 - The Holocaust and the Four Roots of Evil 241
  • References *
  • 11 - Examining Hitler from a Social-Psychological Perspective 259
  • Notes *
  • References 280
  • 12 - Lying Self-Deception and Belief Change 285
  • References *
  • 13 - Does Social Psychology Exonerate the Perpetrators? 301
  • References *
  • 14 - Social Psychologists Confront the Holocaust 325
  • Note *
  • References *
  • Author Index 347
  • General Index 355
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