of Political Realism
Nowadays, we would express this attitude by saying that in the last analysis, politics too must conform to objective criteria and must be based on knowledge and morality. The year 1848 marked an important step in that direction on the European continent, as Havlíček well understood.
A political person who thinks in these terms sees the historical development as determined by definite law and order. Such a political analyst studies his era in the same manner that a natural scientist studies nature. We have already remarked that Havlíček saw the laws of nature operating even in history.
Like all precise knowledge, political science as Havlíček envisioned it would be founded on experience. Havlíček always referred to concrete circumstances and realities. This did not mean, however, that Havlíček accepted the contemporary slogan of____________________