REFORM AND REHABILITATION
American occupation --demilitarization --political and constitu-
tional reform--judiciary --reform of labour laws, land tenure
and education--peace treaty --foreign relations --politics after
1952--industrial recovery and growth
THE LANGUAGE in which the Japanese emperor told his people of the decision to surrender was elliptical in the extreme. 'Despite the best that has been done by everyone,' he said, '. . . the war situation has developed not necessarily to Japan's advantage.'78 Accordingly, in order to avoid further bloodshed, perhaps even 'the total extinction of human civilization', Japan would have to 'endure the unendurable and suffer what is insufferable'. For these reasons it had been decided to accept the allied terms.
What this meant in practice was very soon made clear. The appearance of American airborne forces in Tokyo and of an allied fleet at anchor off Yokosuka, the orders given to Japanese troops overseas to lay down their arms and to those in Japan to disperse quietly to their towns and villages, all this brought home vividly the reality of defeat. In the Tokyo-Yokohama area the population stayed as much as possible indoors, fearing atrocities and reprisals. Everywhere, as they looked to their leaders for instructions, or at least for news of what was going on, they found their country's administration, like its economy, in chaos. To a nation that had for weeks been exhorted to work harder and prepare itself for a last-ditch stand, the change was bewildering, notwithstanding the bombing, the shortages and the other signs of disaster which had been multiplying on every