IN THE COURSE of writing this book I have incurred so many debts that I hardly know how to begin to acknowledge them. I will exhaust the adjectives that I must use to describe this help—crucial, lucid, helpful, critical, generous, professional, invaluable—long before I can properly express my enduring gratitude. The best place to start is to acknowledge the generous financial support I received from the Graduate School Research Committee at the University of Wisconsin, the National Science Foundation (SBR-9511444), the Harry S Truman Library Foundation, the Gerald R. Ford Library Foundation, and the Eisenhower World Affairs Institute. Just as important are the lucid and helpful comments many colleagues and friends have provided. Larry Berman, David Canon, Steven DiTullio, Charles Franklin, Chuck Jones, John Kessel, Martha Joynt Kumar, Ken Meier, Richard Neustadt, Lyn Ragsdale, Bert Rockman, Robert Shapiro, Mary Stuckey, Stephen Wayne, Graham Wilson, and Tom Weko all gave generously of their time and knowledge, as did my fellow participants in the Presidency in the 21st Century Conference (held at Columbia University in 1996 to honor Neustadt's contribution to presidential studies). The archivists and staff at the presidential libraries were a treasure, and endlessly patient with me. A number of current and former government officials graciously consented to detailed interviews; most requested anonymity, but some (particularly former White House counsel Lloyd Cuter) agreed to go on the record. Patrick Murphy, Lisa Nelson, Kevin Price, and Matt Beck provided invaluable research assistance. Malcolm Litchfield at Princeton University Press signed on to this project early, taking a significant risk in the process, and his successor, Chuck Myers, guided the manuscript to completion with a steady and enthusiastic hand. Elizabeth Gilbert was an extraordinary copyeditor, gently correcting my bad writing habits as she went over the manuscript with great care. Louis Fisher and David Gray Adler read the entire manuscript, and provided crucial advice and support; I owe a special intellectual debt to Fisher, whose work spurred my original interest in the legal basis of presidential power.
I reserve the last—and most significant—acknowledgment for my wife, Susan, who has provided an immeasurable amount of support and encouragement, both over the five years I have spent on this project and over the twelve years we have been married. I simply could not have come