This book is an introduction to the archaeology of pagan Sicily written at a time when the pace of discovery and the development of the interpretation of both old and new material has far outdistanced the information published in any language other than Italian.
It is a pleasure to acknowledge my debt to a group of archaeologists whom it has been my good fortune to come to know through our common endeavors and several of whom have aided me directly in making this book. Admiration accompanies my thanks to Prof. Luigi Bernabò Brea, formerly Superintendent at Syracuse and dean of Italian prehistorians. If I feel that I know Selinuntine sculpture better than that of any other center of Greek art, it is due to Prof. Vincenzo Tusa, retired Superintendent at Palermo, who has dedicated himself to Punic and Elymnian Sicily as much as to the Sicily of the Greeks. My excursions into Sicilian numismatics have been better for the encouragement of Dr Aldina Tusa Cutroni. To Prof. Giuseppe Voza, Superintendent at Syracuse, I am indebted for permission to photograph freely in the magnificent coin cabinet of the Syracuse museum, which is in the generous care of Sig:ra Giuseppina Tranchina and which she and I first knew under the curatorship of Sig:ra Maria Teresa Currò. My first excavation in Sicily was at Morgantina under the direction of the late Profs Erik Sjöqvist and Richard Stillwell, who together created the first American archaeological undertaking in Sicily. These early years coincided with the period of intense activity, nearby at Gela, of Prof. Dinu Adamesteanu and Prof. Piero Orlandini, two gallant archaeologists whose research was to take them, as it did me for a time, to southern Italy. Subsequently I worked at La Muculufa under the cordial guidance of my friend Prof. Ernesto De Miro and of Dr Graziella Fiorentini, Superintendents at Agrigento. And more recently on Ustica I am engaged in excavation under Dr Carmela Angela Di Stefano at Palermo. At La Muculufa I enjoyed the wholehearted support of my fellow members of the Associazione Archeologica Licatese and the friendship of Dr Giuseppe Navarra, Notary of Licata. Additional courtesies were shown me by Dr Giuseppe Castellana, Director of the Agrigento Museum. Dr Brian E. McConnell, now field director at La Muculufa, has kindly read Chapter I and made numerous useful suggestions. Others I owe to my collaborator Dr Susan S. Lukesh, Associate Provost of Hofstra University. I am also grateful for the encouragement of my colleagues Prof. Rolf Winkes and Prof. Martha S. Joukowsky.
Citations and footnotes have been held to a minimum. Ancient authors are so thoroughly indexed that anyone wishing to follow up my few citations of their evidence will have no trouble doing so. The limitation of footnotes is intentional. In a book of this nature I have no desire to present the reader with what Prof. Rhys Carpenter described as ‘That open sewer at the bottom of the page.’ I have, however, compiled an extensive bibiliography of publications between 1980 and 1989 because these will not yet have found extensive citation. In the preparation of the bibliography I have had invaluable assistance from Miss Anne Leinster and Mr Robert Behrendt.
Brown University has helped me materially in two instances. I was enabled to spend an entire week in the magnificent new Archaeological Museum at Syracuse with the support of funds provided by the Center for Old World Archaeology and Art, and the collection and pre-