Environmental Management in Practice: Managing the Ecosystem - Vol. 3

By B.Nath; L.Hens et al. | Go to book overview

12

THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Jozef Buys
SUMMARY
Environmental management should be considered as a means for attaining sustainable development. However, the direction of this development should not be solely determined by a purely ecological environment, but must include the human aspect, as expressed by cultural diversity. Although present-day indigenous populations may still display original characteristics that illustrate their unique ways of adapting to the natural as well as to the human environment, often the most authentic expressions of knowledge and know-how are hardly remembered and lie hidden in the archaeological heritage. These remains of the past may hold a huge potential for understanding how we became what we are and what lessons past successes and failures may teach us, but they are, at the same time, prone to destruction for multiple reasons. Current protection measures don’t work well, partly because of a lack of efficient enforcement, and partly because of the great complexity of the problem. All development projects in archaeologically interesting areas should therefore include an archaeological impact assessment (AIA), and foresee appropriate measures for protecting ancient remains. This means that political will, at all levels, must exist to include AIA in the project cycle and to execute it properly, after which monitoring of the archaeological heritage must be organised. Hence the need for awareness-raising and capacity-building at all levels. A possible way of reaching this objective could be to include the cultural dimension in existing legally binding environmental agreements on the international level, or to negotiate a convention sui generis that combines both aspects.
ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES
This chapter aims at establishing the links between sustainable development, environmental management and the safeguarding of the cultural heritage, with an emphasis on archaeological patrimony. After providing some basic definitions, ways and means of integrating the archaeological heritage into environmental management are suggested, both on the specific project basis and on the broader level of anticipatory programming. Upon completion of this chapter, the reader should be able to:
• understand the importance and role of cultural and archaeological heritage in development plans, as an integral part of the environment;
• identify the levels at which appropriate decisions can be made for integrating this heritage into the project cycle;
• turn to the right authorities in order to assess correctly the archaeological impact of development projects;
• evaluate the quality of these assessments and of the suggested mitigating measures that derive from it; and
• be acquainted with the general principles that should safeguard the archaeological heritage against future destruction, by implementing a system of protection, a process of monitoring and campaigns of awareness-raising and capacity-building at both the national and international levels.

INTRODUCTION

If sustainable development means that we can continue to use all kinds of resources for our own development, while guaranteeing that future generations can also establish and enjoy a good quality of life, and if, furthermore, we accept that sustainability comprises aspects of natural environment, social welfare and economic well-being, then the very concept of

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Environmental Management in Practice: Managing the Ecosystem - Vol. 3
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures x
  • Tables xii
  • Boxes xiii
  • Preface and Acknowledgements xviii
  • List of Abbreviations xxii
  • List of Units xxiv
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Coastal Environments 8
  • 2 - Coastal Environments 24
  • 3 - River and Inland Water Environments 38
  • References 58
  • 4 - Wetlands 62
  • 5 - Upland and Mountain Environments 86
  • 6 - Savannas 109
  • Suggested Reading 126
  • 7 - Desert Margins 128
  • References 148
  • Suggested Reading 150
  • 8 - Tropical Forest Ecosystems 151
  • 9 - Wilderness Management 165
  • References 182
  • 10 - Rural Environments 185
  • Suggested Reading 198
  • 11 - Urban Environments 199
  • 12 - The Archaeological Heritage in Environmental Management 214
  • References 228
  • 13 - Environmental Management of Landscapes 230
  • 14 - Disappearing Human Ecosystems 251
  • Glossary 267
  • Answers to Self-Assessment Questions 273
  • Index to Environmental Management in Practice, Volumes 1-3 276
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