A NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION AND NAMES

Except in direct citations from Russian sources, Russian names are given in their accepted English forms—thus ‘Meyerkhol’d’ also appears as ‘Meyerhold’, ‘Gorky’ as ‘Gor’kiy’, and ‘Stanislavskiy’ as ‘Stanislavsky’ (as well as ‘Stanislavski’ where that version of his name has been used by others). The method of transliteration used in this book is based on the ‘Matthews’ system, with the occasional variation where a ‘y’ is prefixed to ‘e’—so that ‘Egorov’ (the painter and stage designer) is transliterated as ‘Yegorov’, ‘Epikhodov’ (a character in The Cherry Orchard) as ‘Yepikhodov’, and a word like p’esa (a play) appears as pyesa. The Russian ‘yo’ has not been phoneticised so ‘Fedor’ is not transliterated as ‘Fyodor’. Soft-signs are indicated but hard-signs have been omitted from citations of pre-revolutionary sources. An attempt has been made to be consistent throughout.

It was the Moscow Art Theatre which, going against tradition, first introduced the convention of referring to actors by their initials and surnames in their programmes and publicity-handouts, rather than referring to them as Mr and Mrs which had hitherto been the norm. Unlike England, where theatre programmes refer to actors by their first and surnames, the modern convention in Russia and in the Soviet Union has always been to refer to the surname only, prefaced by the initials of the first name and patronymic of the actor concerned. Thus, an internationally renowned actress such as Olga Knipper would always feature in theatre programmes as O.L. Knipper (her patronymic being Leonardovna), just as Stanislavsky would always appear as K.S. Stanislavsky. This meant that, often, the first names and patronymics of less prominent actors and actresses were never widely known, if at all, and public references to them were by initials and

-x-

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The Moscow Art Theatre
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgements ix
  • A Note on Transliteration and Names x
  • Part I - The Establishment of the Moscow Art Theatre 1
  • Introduction 3
  • 1 - Historical Background 13
  • 2 - The Society of Art and Literature 24
  • 3 - The Creation of a New Theatre 32
  • 4 - The Hermitage Theatre on Carriage Row 49
  • 5 - Actors, Salaries, Conditions of Service 58
  • 6 - Savva Morozov and the Lianozov Theatre 68
  • Part II - The Moscow Art Theatre Repertoire 1898-1917 83
  • 7 - First Season: 1898-1899 85
  • 8 - Second Season: 1899-1900 112
  • 9 - Third Season: 1900-1901 121
  • 10 - Fourth Season: 1901-1902 128
  • 11 - Fifth Season: 1902-1903 132
  • 12 - Sixth Season: 1903-1904 152
  • 13 - Season Seven to Season Ten: 1904-1908 165
  • 14 - Seasons Eleven and Twelve: 1908-1909 178
  • 15 - Season Twelve to Season Twenty: 1909-1917 199
  • 16 - Conclusion 204
  • Notes 209
  • Bibliography 226
  • Index 232
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