6

SAVVA MOROZOV AND THE LIANOZOV THEATRE

Production costs in the Theatre’s third season had risen to 100,000 roubles, nearly double those of the first. As a result, a decision was taken to renege on the idea of ‘accessibility’ and increase seat prices. If a full house recouped 950 roubles during the first season then, by the third, this had become 1,450 and, by the fourth, 1,550. Despite this, the Theatre faced financial crisis with losses of 52,500, plus a deficit from the previous season of 27,500. The situation was saved by one of the major shareholders, Savva Morozov, who stumped up the entire sum needed. None of the other shareholders was in a position to help, as their entire capital had been expended. At the end of the fourth season there was not even enough money in the kitty to pay for running expenses.

The Morozov family had made its money in cotton, expanded into railways and controlled two important Moscow banks. It employed 8,000 workers during the 1890s. Savva Morozov was a chemist by training and had received his practical education in England. Unusually for a wealthy capitalist, he was sympathetic to the Russian revolutionary movement and felt especially attracted to Gorky, whom he bailed out of prison in 1905 for 10,000 roubles. Gorky subsequently included aspects of Morozov’s personality in his portrayal of powerful capitalists with contradictory natures, such as Yegor Bulychev. Morozov also admired Lenin, lending support to the Social Democratic Party and to its newspaper, Iskra. During the 1905 strike, much to his family’s consternation, Morozov offered his workers a share of the firm’s profits. Having entered the Syndicate for the Establishment of a Public-Accessible Art Theatre, in company with his brother, he became the most powerful member of the shareholding group and was largely responsible for ensuring the Theatre’s survival. His relations with the Theatre, and

-68-

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The Moscow Art Theatre
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgements ix
  • A Note on Transliteration and Names x
  • Part I - The Establishment of the Moscow Art Theatre 1
  • Introduction 3
  • 1 - Historical Background 13
  • 2 - The Society of Art and Literature 24
  • 3 - The Creation of a New Theatre 32
  • 4 - The Hermitage Theatre on Carriage Row 49
  • 5 - Actors, Salaries, Conditions of Service 58
  • 6 - Savva Morozov and the Lianozov Theatre 68
  • Part II - The Moscow Art Theatre Repertoire 1898-1917 83
  • 7 - First Season: 1898-1899 85
  • 8 - Second Season: 1899-1900 112
  • 9 - Third Season: 1900-1901 121
  • 10 - Fourth Season: 1901-1902 128
  • 11 - Fifth Season: 1902-1903 132
  • 12 - Sixth Season: 1903-1904 152
  • 13 - Season Seven to Season Ten: 1904-1908 165
  • 14 - Seasons Eleven and Twelve: 1908-1909 178
  • 15 - Season Twelve to Season Twenty: 1909-1917 199
  • 16 - Conclusion 204
  • Notes 209
  • Bibliography 226
  • Index 232
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