Environment, Resources and Growth
As the need to move swiftly and effectively against hunger increases, two new complications have surfaced: (1) the struggle for a clean environment; and (2) resource limitations. They affect both rich and poor nations, but pose special dilemmas for the poor ones, who find themselves facing additional handicaps when the deck has already been stacked heavily against them. Both dilemmas demonstrate that the struggle against hunger moves us inescapably to a quest for social justice.
The campaign to save our environment mounts pressure against poor countries to pay an extra price as they industrialize: the cost of pollution control. For that matter, the pressure is felt on low income people in our own country and at times has surfaced in public clashes between those fighting for jobs and those fighting to conserve nature.
In reality two environmental campaigns are going on. One centers primarily on protecting nature and its ecosystems. The second concerns itself with social ecosystems that produce hunger, disease, and crowded hovels. By logic these two indispensable campaigns deserve to unite and strengthen each other. In practice they often collide.
The first campaign is being waged by those who are not so poor, some of whom are more indignant about smog than about slums, more worried about the mistreatment of animals and lakes than about mistreated people. This tends to pit the rights