Breast Cancer

By Lesley Fallowfield; Andrew Clark | Go to book overview

Chapter one

What is breast cancer and how is it treated? A surgeon’s experience of breast cancer

Epidemiology and causation

Cancer of the breast occurs in women of all races and appears to have happened throughout history. It is slowly increasing in frequency all over the western world. In Britain about 24,000 new cases are diagnosed each year, and 15,000 deaths are certified as due to the disease. This suggests that about a third of all cases die of some other cause, with no evidence of further cancer in their bodies. These women could reasonably be claimed to have been cured of their breast cancer. To put it another way, 1 woman in 14 will contract breast cancer during her lifetime and 1 in 21 will die of it (Cancer Research Campaign 1988).

Britain tops the international table, alas, with a death rate five times that of Japan. Now that there is a lot of information on migrant populations, we know that Japanese who emigrate to America soon share American death rates for most common cancers. While this has not yet come true for breast cancer, there is evidence to suggest that it will. Thus the information from migration suggests that environmental factors play a large part in the onset of the disease. Despite intensive study, it is disappointing to report that no clear guidance as to how to reduce risk through diet has emerged.

Those factors implicated in the development of breast cancer that can be avoided are obesity and ionizing radiation. Of the remaining risk factors, age is inevitable and some others carry such a small risk that few would wish to change their lives because of them. It may be more important to list some common worries which are presently under investigation and have not been shown to affect significantly the incidence of the disease. They include high fat diet, hormone

-1-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Breast Cancer
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 138

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.