Chapter 2

The fortified city

ORIGINS AND NEEDS

Fortifications can be defined as the deliberate erection of physical structures intended to provide a military advantage to a defender and impede, or otherwise disadvantage, an attacker. Natural features such as relatively high ground, or favourably located water, vegetation obstacles and the like, may in themselves endow a site with the characteristics of a ‘natural fortress’, but the idea of fortifications implies a series of deliberate decisions. These relate the amount of resources needed to permit the defence of a particular geographical location to the strategic and tactical benefits of doing so. The result is a technical solution which matches the resources available for defence to those of a potential enemy. Fortifications are therefore ‘weapon systems’ whose principal purpose is to compel an attacker to expend more time or resources on their capture than is expended on their defence. In that sense, both the rifleman’s individual ‘foxhole’ and the rock plateau of Carcassonne—surrounded by 3-metre-thick and 1,100-metre-long walls, with twenty-six circuit towers (Salch 1978)—are fortifications, designed to allow ground to be held by a weaker defence against a stronger attack.

Given the various important defence roles that cities have always possessed, as outlined earlier, it is not surprising that the idea of fortifying cities is as old as the idea of the city itself. This is not the place to repeat the various theories of urban genesis but it does seem reasonable that the basic human daily need for sleep and shelter, and the longer-term rhythms of child rearing and seasonal food storage, made necessary the territorial defence of sedentary settlements; the coming together of people in large groups gave not only a security in numbers but also allowed the division of labour so that the strong could defend the weak. Improving the natural defences of such a settlement—with a ditch or a rampart of accessible materials such as earth or wood—seems such a short logical step that it must have been taken almost instantaneously with the decision to settle rather than seek security in flight or concealment. Certainly, archeological evidence of the earliest cities, more often than not, shows a fortified settlement. In Palestine, Jericho was walled from around 6500 BC, but despite an 8-metre-wide ditch and a stone wall

-12-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
War and the City
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures vii
  • Tables ix
  • Preface x
  • Chapter 1 - Introduction 1
  • Chapter 2 - The Fortified City 12
  • Chapter 3 - The Defence Town 63
  • Chapter 4 - The Insurgent City 83
  • Chapter 5 - The City as Battle Terrain 112
  • Chapter 6 - The Air Defence of Cities 136
  • Chapter 7 - The Re-Use of Redundant Defence Systems 153
  • Chapter 8 - Defence as Heritage 174
  • Chapter 9 - The City and Defence 195
  • References 204
  • Index of Places 213
  • Subject Index 219
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 228

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.