Special thanks are due to successive philosophy secretaries, Barbara Young and Judy Wolstenholme, for the skill, dedication and patience they showed in typing and retyping the manuscript. My thanks are also due to my desk editor at Routledge, Maria Stasiak, and to the copy editor, Sally Brooks, for the skill with which they have seen the manuscript through to publication, and to Peva Keane for the excellent index she compiled.
Several portions of the book have been previously published as articles in various philosophical journals and I wish to acknowledge permission to republish these as follows:
Part of Chapter 2 was orginally published as Part III of A. Olding (1984) ‘On theories of evolution and their several natures’, Nature and
Part of Chapter 3 was originally published as A. Olding (1980) System 6, 2/3:103-17. ‘Polanyi and the notion of hierarchies’, Religious Studies 16:19-102. Reprinted by permission of Cambridge University Press.
Part of Chapter 4 was originally published as A. Olding (1985) ‘Reductionism and natural selection’, Synthese: An International Journal for Epistemology, Methodology and Philosophy of Science 65:407-10. Copyright © 1985 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Reprinted by permission of Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Chapter 5 was originally published as A. Olding (1985) ‘Biology and knowledge’, Theoria: A Swedish Journal of Philosophy IL, 1:1-22. It is reprinted by permission of the editors of Theoria.