Schooling for Change: Reinventing Education for Early Adolescents

By Andy Hargreaves; Jim Ryan et al. | Go to book overview

9

Teaching and Learning

If schools are going to be transformed to meet the needs of early adolescents, curriculum and assessment reform are only part of the puzzle. Ultimately, the only curriculum and assessment that count are the ones experienced by the student—the curriculum and assessment in use. How do teachers and students transform resources, timetables and ideas into teaching and learning? As we, and many other writers, have mentioned, changing grouping patterns, school organization or curriculum outcomes is unlikely to have any major positive impact on classrooms or students unless there are changes in how teachers teach as well (Leithwood et al, 1988; Slavin, 1987c; Epstein, 1990).

Teaching, like all other human endeavors, is not static. The process for shaping the next generation is evolving, along with the society as a whole. The nature and role of teaching are inextricably tied to the expectations that we have for our students, to our understanding of the way that humans learn and to our beliefs about how adults, particularly teachers, can guide young people in their learning. We have already discussed many of the increased demands on our society and its young people. As a number of authors have told us very eloquently—schools of the future are going to have to bear little resemblance to those of the past (Schlechty, 1990; Fullan, 1993) and teachers will have to teach very differently (McLaughlin and Talbert, 1993). This may be hard to accept when little in our basic school structures has changed for a century or more. Nevertheless, the forces of change impacting upon our schools seem to be reaching a critical mass and schools, like countries and corporations, are finally beginning to contemplate fundamental restructuring. At least part of the impetus for school reform comes from a recognition that the modernistic model of specialization and standardization that has been rejected in other organizations and workplaces is also being questioned in education. It is no longer sufficient for schools to provide students with basic skills. In addition to the foundation skills of literacy and numeracy, students generally, not just a few, will need to attain more sophisticated skills like complex, critical thinking, novel problemsolving, weighing alternatives, making informed judgments, developing flexible identities, working independently and in groups and discerning appropriate courses of action in ambiguous situations (Earl and Cousins, 1995; Peterson and Knapp, 1993). The challenge for schools is to capitalize on new teaching methods and learning environments that are built upon what we now know

-140-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Schooling for Change: Reinventing Education for Early Adolescents
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgments vi
  • 1 - Triple Transitions 1
  • 2 - Adolescence and Adolescents 9
  • 3 - Cultures of Schooling 18
  • 4 - The Transition Process 35
  • 5 - Care and Support 54
  • 6 - Curriculum Problems 78
  • 7 - Outcomes and Integration 90
  • 8 - Assessment and Evaluation 112
  • 9 - Teaching and Learning 140
  • 10 - Getting There 159
  • References 178
  • Index 211
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 218

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.