I have never missed an opportunity to act in life. The point is that one should be prepared. For this, it is necessary for me to have a conviction shaped by a long reflection. When the moment arrives, everything is simple because necessity no longer leaves room for hesitation.
The resistance of men and things is on the scale of the change we seek to bring. It is in fact the surest sign that we are on the road to this change.
Jean Monnet, Mémoires
Almost immediately following the Maastricht European Council, the Kohl government began its defense of the Treaty results at home. The dominant issue in the ratification debate was the loss of the German national currency, the D-mark, through the creation of an Economic and Monetary Union with a single European currency, the ECU, by 1999. This chapter first considers the constitutional changes relevant to the ratification procedure. An explanation of the main issues during the ratification debates in the Bundestag and Bundesrat follows. The influence of the “psychology of the mark” and the role of German civil servants are then analyzed. This analysis is made in context of the cases put before the Constitutional Court regarding the Treaty and its compatibility with the Basic Law. Finally this chapter assesses the parliamentary ratification of Maastricht in Germany, and the subsequent decision of the Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe, in terms of the three approaches used in this book.