|accent a system of pronunciation associated with a group of speakers from a particular class or region (e.g. an upper-class accent, a West-Country accent).|
|active see voice.|
|adjective one of the major word classes; adjectives can function as head of a phrase attributive to a noun (e.g. a small house) or predicated of a subject (e.g. the house is small). Many adjectives are gradable.|
|adjective phrase a class of expressions containing an adjective as head, with or without modifiers; e.g. very cheap, comfortable, good to the neighbours.|
|adjunct an element in the structure of sentences. Adjuncts are appended as extras to the essential elements of the sentence. The term is also used (but not in this book) in a more general sense to mean an appended element in structures other than sentences.|
|adverb the term traditionally applied to a large number of rather different classes of words, including those derived from adjectives by the suffixation of-ly (e.g. beautifully). See pp. 74-6 for adverbs of place, time, frequency and manner, and pp. 76-7 for ‘sentence adverbs’.|
1 an element in the structure of sentences roughly equivalent to adjunct.
2 a class of expressions, including adverb phrases and prepositional phrases, capable of acting as adjuncts and also in other ways. The term (a noun) is sometimes used without it being clear whether it means 1 or 2. It is not used in this book.
1 an element in the structure of sentences, closely associated with a verb, which it complements without affecting its status as a transitive or intransitive verb: e.g. send off; come back; pick out; turn round.
2 the class of words that can function in this way: off, back, out, round, over, up, etc. (See also particle.)
|affix an element in the structure of a word; it is added to the stem for the purpose of inflection or derivation. Prefixes come in front of the stem (e.g. sub- in submerge) and suffixes come after the stem (e.g. -less in hopeless).|
|agreement the marking of an expression to agree with another expression for the same category: e.g. in this college v. these colleges the words this and these agree with the number (singular or plural) of the noun they modify; in I come v. he comes the form of the verb, come or comes, agrees with the subject for person and number. (Also called concord.)|
|anaphora the use of an expression to refer to something preceding it in the text, e.g. she may refer back to somebody mentioned a moment before, or the expression a smaller|