VI

1815-1848: THE AGE OF FRUSTRATION

THE Liberalism and Nationalism of the period after 1815 represented a re-interpretation and re-adjustment of the theories of the Revolution to meet the requirements of a later generation. In order to rally the peoples against the Tyrant, the Allied princes had felt themselves compelled to adopt some of the enemy’s slogans. They, and not Bonaparte, were the Liberators, and to prove it they came armed not only with swords but with constitutions, much as the Allies of 1945 offered Four Freedoms and schemes of Social Insurance. The purpose was the same in both cases: to prove that the Allies too had slogans, and to damp down social unrest by making concessions to current social aspirations. Hence the French, German and Polish constitutions, and the guarantees for the Belgians in the new Kingdom of the Netherlands. But since, after 1815, most of these constitutions were evaded, violated, annulled or restricted, the most convenient way of defining the Liberal version of revolutionary doctrine is to describe it as a desire for a constitution where none existed, or for the widening of those constitutions that did exist.

Constitutionalism was a restrained, and indeed slightly bloodless translation of the original phrases of Revolution. This reflected the brief period of respectability that some of the new theories had enjoyed under Allied patronage. It also reflected the recapture of the Revolution by the class for whom it had principally been intended, namely the bourgeoisie. The true function of Constitutionalism was to protect the bourgeoisie from the princes, who rejected the

-38-

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From Vienna to Versailles
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Maps vi
  • Preface vii
  • Bibliography ix
  • Supplementary Bibliography xi
  • I - The Vienna Settlement 1
  • II - The Congress System and the Holy Alliance 1815-1820 10
  • III - The Holy Alliance, Europe and the East 1820-1841 16
  • IV - The Crimean War— Causes and Consequences 23
  • V - Revolution: Origins 32
  • VI - 1815-1848: The Age of Frustration 38
  • VII - 1848: Year of Failure 49
  • VIII - Louis Napoleon, Second Republic and Second Empire 55
  • IX - Napoleon III and Cavour 69
  • X - Cavour and Garibaldi 79
  • XI - Bismarck and Germany 1862-1871 96
  • XII - Bismarck and Germany 1871-1890 120
  • XIII - Imperial Conflicts and European Alignments 1875-1907 130
  • XIV - Cry Havoc…1907-1914 157
  • XV - Through War to Peace 1914-1920 186
  • Index 213
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