Dates are approximate.1 The margin of error rises to as much as one to two centuries for the early third millennium B.C.E. For Dynasties 3-13, the margin of error is up to sixty years; for Dynasties 15-31, up to ten years. After 332 B.C.E., most dates are exact to within one year. Overlaps in dynasties' dates indicate competing dynasties; overlaps in monarchs' dates indicate co-regency.
|Predynastic Period||c. 5000-3185|
|Early Dynastic Period||(Dynasties 1-3)||c. 3185-2630|
|First Dytiasty||c. 3185-2930|