On the Fringe: Gays and Lesbians in Politics

By David Rayside | Go to book overview

NOTES

Introduction
1.
For useful comparative overviews, see Dennis Altman, Power and Community: Organizational and Cultural Responses to AIDS ( London: Taylor and Francis, 1994); and Barry D. Adam, The Rise of a Gay and Lesbian Movement, rev. ed. ( New York: Twayne, 1995), chap. 7.
2.
Margaret Cruikshank talks about the particular benchmark that 1990 itself constituted in the United States: "The year 1990 brought so many victories and signs of encouraging developments for gay liberation that it seemed to mark a turning point for the movement. Gay rights bills passed in communities where they would not have had a chance of being enacted ten years earlier, in San Diego and Pittsburgh, for example. The Hate Crimes Statistics Act included lesbians and gay men, an official recognition of their minority status. Congress revoked anti-gay immigration laws." Margaret Cruikshank, The Gay and Lesbian Liberation Movement ( New York: Routledge, 1992), p. 192.
3.
I have written on this (with Scott Bowler) in "Public Opinion and Gay Rights," Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 25 ( 1988): 649-60.
4.
This is commonly argued in the literature on social movements. See, for example, Hanspeter Kriesi et al., New Social Movements in Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis ( Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995).
5.
William Gamson, "Framing Political Opportunity," paper presented at the conference on European/American Perspectives on Social Movements, Washington, D.C., 1992, p. 15.
6.
This is true of some of the contributors to Russell J. Dalton and Manfred Kuechler, eds., Challenging the Political Order: New Social and Political Movements in Western Democracies ( Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990), most notably Claus Offe.
7.
See Robin Murray, "Fordism and Post-Fordism," pp. 38-53; Stuart Hall and David Held, "Citizens and Citizenship," pp. 173-88; and other contributions in New Times: The Changing Face of Politics in the 1990s, ed. Stuart Hall and Martin Jacques ( London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1989).
8.
Among the writers criticizing the concept of "new social movement" are Kay Leman Schlozman and John T. Tierney, Organized Interests and American Democracy ( New York: Harper U+026 Row, 1986), p. 198; Lorna Weir, "Limitations of New Social Movement Analysis," Studies in Political Economy 40 ( Spring 1993): 73-102; and David Plotke, "What's So New about New Social Movements?" Socialist Review 20, no. 1 ( 1990): 80-102.
9.
Life cycles and protest waves are discussed in Karl-Werner Brand, "Cyclical Aspects of New Social Movements: Waves of Cultural Criticism and Mobilization Cycles of New Middle-Class Radicalism," and Claus Offe, "Reflections on the Institutional Self-Transformation of Movement Politics: A Tentative Stage Model," in Dalton and Kuechler, Challenging the Social Order, pp. 23-42, 232-50.
10.
The tendency toward institutionalization is discussed in Sidney Tarrow, Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action, and Politics ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

-315-

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