IF we are to arrive at any proper appreciation of Greek economic life, and in particular of the attitude adopted by the Greek State towards trade and commerce, we must first of all get some clear understanding of the types of people by whom these activities were carried on, and of their precise social and economic significance. To do this is one of the most urgent tasks of ancient economic history.
Let us, then, begin by defining our terms.1 At a period when the division of labour had been carried to considerable lengths, the Greek language recognised three distinct types of trader or middleman -- the kapelos, the naukleros, and the emporos, and in addition two sub-types. The kapelos is the local dealer -- the man who in general does not leave his own place of residence either for the purpose of importing or exporting, but confines himself to selling on the home market. Usage, however, makes a further distinction, according to the manner in which the commodities which he offers for sale are obtained. If he buys them directly from the producers he is a kapelos in the strict sense; if from another middleman -- a merchant or importer -- he is a 'dealer at second remove' (παλιγκάπηλος).2 But in either case what he sells is not his own produce. The farmer or manufacturer who brings the____________________