African Languages, Development and the State

By Richard Fardon; Graham Furniss | Go to book overview

NOTES
1
Fieldwork among the Zambian Nkoya was undertaken in 1972-4, and during shorter visits in 1977, 1978, 1981, 1988, 1989 and 1992 (twice). Fieldwork among the Kalanga of Botswana was undertaken in 1988-9 and during shorter visits in 1990, 1991 and 1992 (twice). I am indebted to the African Studies Centre, Leiden, for the most generous encouragement and financial support; and to research participants, to assistants and Government officials in both Zambia and Botswana and to members of my family, for invaluable contributions to the research. An earlier version of this argument was presented at the conference on ‘African languages, development and the state’, Centre of African Studies (University of London) and EIDOS, London, April 1991; in this context, I wish to thank the conference organizers, Richard Pardon and Graham Furniss, and the participants, for stimulating discussions; and the African Studies Centre, Leiden, for financing my participation. Rob Buijtenhuijs made useful comments on an earlier draft.
2
Cf. Mitchell 1974, Epstein 1978, and references cited there; major recent additions to this literature are in Vail 1989, including Robert Papstein’s (1989) analysis of Luvale ethnicity which has considerable parallels with the Nkoya case. I have given an overview of rural ethnicity studies on Zambia in van Binsbergen 1985; 1992a deals with the interplay between twentieth-century ethnicity and the production of images of the pre-colonial past.
3
Cf. Wilmsen 1988, 1989 and references cited there.
4
On the Nkoya, cf. Brown 1984; McCulloch 1951; van Binsbergen 1977, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1992a, 1992b; Clay 1945. On the Lozi and Barotseland (Western Province, Western Zambia) in general, cf. Gluckman 1943, 1951, 1968; Prins 1980; Mutumba Mainga 1973; Stokes 1966; Caplan 1970. The only linguistic publication specifically on the Nkoya language is Yasutoshi Yukawa 1987.
5
This is not only the Nkoya’s self-image (cf. van Binsbergen 1992a), but also the opinion of, among others, the ethnologist McCulloch (1951:93) and the linguist Fortune (1959:26).
6
Mwene: ‘ruler’; here: ‘queen’.
7
Induna: ‘office-bearer in the Lozi indigenous administration’.
8
Throughout the colonial period, those Nkoya royal chiefs whose chieftaincies had survived functioned as members of the Lozi aristocracy and in this capacity boasted their own courts; legal proceedings were by preference conducted in Lozi, but the use of Nkoya was not ruled out. Shortly after Independence (1964), the central state instituted Local Courts, with state-trained judges and assessors who de jure were independent from the chief (not de facto, since they were members of the local aristocracy and appointed in consultation with the chief). At an unofficial level, below the Local Court each valley would continue to have its court presided over by a senior member of the chiefs council; proceedings there would mainly be in Nkoya. An interesting development in Nkoyaland in the late 1980s was the spontaneous, but state-tolerated, institution of mabombola ‘palaver’ courts at chiefs’ palaces, administering a local customary law in the Nkoya language, but without any formal powers beyond reconciliation; cf. van Binsbergen 1977.
9
Testamenta 1952. A list of published texts in the Nkoya language is given in van Binsbergen 1992a:441ff.

-181-

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