CONTENTS
Prefaceix
A brief note on referencesxiii
Acknowledgementsxv
1 AN INTRODUCTORY OVERVIEW 1
2 LANGUAGES IN THE WORLD 15
Language origins15
Languages and language families19
The rise and acknowledgement of multilingualism33
The consequences of Babel39
Parochialism and intercourse53
3 BILINGUALISM 55
Concepts and confusions55
Second-language learning60
Bilingualism and intelligence66
The bilingual brain71
Borrowing, interference and code-switching72
Variation within one language78
Bilingualism and society83
4 LANGUAGES IN CONFLICT 89
Linguistic hierarchies89
Language attitudes97
Murder and suicide102
Language spread and language decline104
Language revival118
5 LANGUAGES AND IDENTITIES 125
Ethnicity125
Nationalism129
Individuals and collectivities134
Language ecology and language comparison136

-vii-

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Multilingualism
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • A Brief Note on References xiii
  • Acknowledgements xv
  • 1 - An Introductory Overview 1
  • 2 - Languages in the World 15
  • 3 - Bilingualism 55
  • 4 - Languages in Conflict 89
  • 5 - Languages and Identities 125
  • 6 - The Prescriptive Urge 146
  • 7 - Languages, Cultures and Education 175
  • 8 - Conclusions 204
  • Notes and References 211
  • Index of Names 243
  • Index of Subjects 251
  • Index of Languages and Language Families 254
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