A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Architecture

By Gwendolyn Leick | Go to book overview

R

rampart

Generally, ramparts are fortified walls surrounding a citadel or a settlement. More specifically, the term is used like the German Wall, Erdwall for banks of earth, sometimes faced with plaster or stones (eg JERICHO MB II), which could constitute either a primitive defensive wall (as in Neolithic GEZER for instance), or a secondary line of fortification, outside the city walls. Ramparts are sometimes found in connection with dry ditches as the by-product of their excavation (BOGHAZKÖY, TELL HALAF: Iron Age, BUHEN).

Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit)

Syro-Palestine/Levant, see map p. xix. The site was already inhabited during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period (7th millennium BC) and from then almost continuously until the 12th C BC. There are some eighteen layers of occupation. Excavations of architectural structures concentrated on those of the Phoenician city (Ugarit) of the Late Bronze period (14th-12th C BC), but only a small part of the city, which covered some 22ha, has been investigated. The palace and other official buildings were situated in the NW of the town. The acropolis in the centre contained two temples and the priests’ quarters. The residential area of the upper classes was near the palaces, while the craftsmen and traders occupied the southern part of the city. The palace quarter was crossed by a transverse road. The fortress on the W flank of the mound had a stone glacis with an inclination of 45°. A corbel-vaulted postern with a right-hand turn led directly to a staircase which gave access to the interior.

The Royal Palace is one of the largest and most luxuriously appointed palaces discovered in the Ancient Near East. It was built in at least four stages from the 18th to the 13th C BC. The area covered was 6500m2. There were five large and four smaller courtyards, some seventy rooms and halls, gardens and a tower. The existence of a substantial upper storey is made highly probable by remains of twelve staircases. The palace was built in stone (except for the upper storeys) and the main walls, some of which are preserved up to a height of up to 4m, were made of beautifully dressed ashlar masonry. The N facade, which overlooked the main road, was further distinguished by buttresses and bossed masonry. On the main facade and on the great courtyards, there were porticoes with wooden columns on stone bases. Corbel-vaulted subterranean tombs built of large stone blocks were found under the second court and even larger ones in the so-called Palais Sud. These funerary apartments consisted of three rooms, entered by a double-columned portico. The palace covered an area of 1600m2, roughly the same size as the Northern Palace, the construction of which dates back to the 17th C BC. It ceased to be used in the 15thC and served as a quarry for stones. The careful and compact layout of this palace contrasts

-173-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Architecture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations ix
  • A 1
  • B 26
  • C 41
  • D 59
  • E 68
  • F 75
  • G 82
  • H 92
  • I 102
  • J 105
  • K 108
  • L 121
  • M 127
  • N 145
  • O 152
  • P 155
  • Q 172
  • R 173
  • S 181
  • T 199
  • U 229
  • V 238
  • W 241
  • Y 245
  • Z 246
  • Alphabetical List of Entries 249
  • Index 253
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 262

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.