Holy Brotherhood: Romani Music in a Hungarian Pentecostal Church

By Barbara Rose Lange | Go to book overview

Notes

Acknowledgments

The funds of the IREX grants for my research were provided by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the United States Information Agency. None of these organizations is responsible for the views expressed.


Introduction
1
At the beginning of migration from India, Roma may have come from several different strata (including nobility) to join military activity in the region (see Hancock 1995). Records documenting their first appearance in Eastern Europe also show them in military specializations (Crowe 1994).
2
László Karsai estimates that 5,000 Roma died as a result of the porrajmos in Hungary (Karsai 1992). This figure has been challenged; Ágnes Diósi observed that many more deaths could have gone unregistered, due to the attitude of casual cruelty toward Roma (Diósi 1991). Donald Kenrick and Grattan Puxon (1972) provided the first summarization of porrajmos casualties in Europe. Guenter Lewy (2000) documents Nazi holocaust operations concerning Roma.
3
Péter Szuhay points out that the idea that Roma have “no culture” is analogous to the “culture of poverty” concept that Oscar Lewis delineated in his study of the urban poor in Mexico City (Lewis 1961; Szuhay 1999:11–15). Vekerdi's arguments were thoroughly refuted by the late 1980s (see Réger 1988), but a major debate raged among dissidents in Hungary over policy applications. Some were concerned with general problems of the poor in Hungary, a great many of whom were Roma. Others, including Roma advocated recognition as an ethnic minority with the educational programs, cultural funding, and government representation this could entail (see Diósi 1990b; Szuhay 1999:11–15).
4
Conventions for religious writing vary in Hungarian. The major churches capitalize pronouns that refer to God, thereby indicating respect. The published songbooks of the small churches tend not to capitalize such pronouns, perhaps signaling a close relationship with the divinity. Capitalization practices varied over time and even within songbooks themselves. When discussing published texts here, I use the versions from the most recent edition of the Pentecostal publication in which they appear. In transcribing unpublished song texts, I apply

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Holy Brotherhood: Romani Music in a Hungarian Pentecostal Church
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • Note on Textual and Musical Transcriptions ix
  • Pronunciation Guide and Orthography for the Hungarian and Romani Languages xi
  • List of Abbreviations xiii
  • Holy Brotherhood 1
  • Introduction 3
  • 1 - The Isten Gyülekezet in Hungarian Society 21
  • 2 - Instrumental Music, Charisma, and Church Leadership 47
  • 3 - Mediating Moralities: an Ethnographer's Interpretation 69
  • 4 - The Holy Spirit and Song Composition 84
  • 5 - Roma and the Hívő éNekek 107
  • 6 - The Politics of Nineteenth- Century Gospel Hymns 131
  • 7 - Stigma and Stereotype 149
  • Conclusion 165
  • Appendix - Recordings, Interviews, and Personal Communications 173
  • Glossary 175
  • Notes 179
  • Bibliography 187
  • Index 199
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