Responsible Conduct of Research

By Adil E. Shamoo; David B. Resnik | Go to book overview

2
Collection, Analysis, and Management of Data

Proper management of research conduct is essential to achieving reliable results and maintaining the quality, objectivity, and integrity of research data. The different steps of research should be monitored carefully, and research design should include built-in safeguards to ensure the quality and integrity of research data. This chapter addresses ethical conduct in different steps of the research process: hypothesis formation, research design, literature review, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, publication, and data storage. This chapter also discusses methods that can help assure the quality, objectivity, and integrity of research data, such as good research practices (GRPs), standard operating procedures (SOPs), peer review, and data audit.

Scientific research is the systematic attempt to describe, explain, and understand the world. While all three main branches of science—physical science, biological science, and social science—study different aspects of the natural world, they share some common methods and procedures. These methods and procedures are designed to achieve the goals of science by helping researchers to acquire accurate knowledge and information. Researchers' compliance with the scientific methods and procedures will minimize falsehoods and biases and maximize truth and objectivity (Cheny 1993). One pillar of the scientific method is the idea that researchers should subject their theories and hypotheses to rigorous tests (Popper 1959). A test is an attempt to gather empirical evidence (or data) that tends to either confirm or disconfirm a theory or hypothesis. Ideas that cannot be tested, such as metaphysical theories or ideological claims, are not scientific hypotheses or theories. Some (but not all) tests involve experiments. In an experiment, a researcher attempts to control the conditions of a test in order to understand statistical or causal relationships between variables or parameters. For an experiment to be rigorous, a researcher must describe it in enough detail that other researchers can obtain the same results by replicating the experimental conditions (Kirk 1995).

Repeatability is important in experimentation because it confirms that others can carry out the methods and procedures used and attain the same data. Repeatability, or lack thereof, provides substance for public debate and inquiry. Private intuitions, hunches, faith, introspection, or insight can play an important role in generating new ideas to test, but they do not constitute rigorous proof. Therefore, all test results in science, whether from controlled experiments, field observations, surveys, epidemiological studies, computer models, or meta-analyses, should be open to public scrutiny and debate. Peer

-25-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Responsible Conduct of Research
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 345

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.