References that we also suggest for further reading are marked with an asterisk (*).
42 CFR 50, subpart A, August 8, 1989.
1995. 42 CFR part 50.
1995. 45 CFR part 64.
Abby, M., et al., 1994. Peer Review Is an Effective Screening Process to Evaluate Medical Manuscripts. JAMA 272: 105–107.
Actuarial Foundation. 1998. Genetic Testing: Implications for Insurance. Actuarial Foundation, Schaumburg, IL.
Adler, R.G., 1993. Choosing the Form of Legal Protection. In Understanding Biotechnology Law, Gale R. Peterson, ed., Marcel Deckker, New York, wpp. 63–86.
Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE), 1995. Final Report. Stock No. 061-000-00-848-9, Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Agnew, B., 1999a. NIH Eyes Sweeping Reform of Peer Review. Science 286: 1074–76.
Agnew, B., 1999b. NIH Invites Activists into the Inner Sanctum. Science 283: 1999– 2001.
Agnew, B., 2000. Financial Conflicts Get more Scrutiny at Clinical Trials. Science 289: 1266–67.
Aller, R., and Aller, C., 1997. An Institutional Response to Patient/Family Complaints. In Ethics in Neurobiological Research with Human Subjects, A. E. Shamoo, (ed.), Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 155–1172.
Altman, L., 1995. Promises of Miracles: News Releases Go Where Journals Fear to Tread. New York Times, January 10, C2–C3.
Altman, L.K., 1997. Experts See Bias In Drug Data. New York Times, April 29, C1–C8.
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1980. Principles of Scientific Freedom and Responsibility. AAAS, Washington, DC.
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1991. Misconduct in Science. AAAS, Washington, DC.
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2000. Inheritable Genetic Modifications. AAAS, Washington, DC.
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)–American Bar Association (ABA), 1988. Project on Scientific Fraud and Misconduct. National Conference of Lawyers and Scientists, Report on Workshop No. 1, AAAS, Washington, DC.
American Psychological Association. 1992. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. American Psychologist 47: 1597–611.
*American Statistical Association (ASA), 1999. Ethical Guidelines for Statistical Practice. ASA, Alexandria, VA.
Anderson, W., 1989. Why Draw a Line? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14(4): 681–93.