This paper would not have been started in the first place without generous support from the Centre for Development and the Environment (SUM) at the University of Oslo and in particular support by Endre Stiansen.
I am grateful to SUM, which has been an inspiring working atmosphere, and to my supervisor Endre Stiansen for his consistent encouragement and guidance throughout the process.
I would like to thank Terje Tvedt for taking time from his busy schedules to read and comment on my paper. This paper also benefited from his annotated bibliography on River Nile (2000) without which my task would have been much more difficult. I want also to thank Madi Gray for editing this paper.
Dahilon Yassin Mohamoda Oslo, May 2003